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ISSN: 2637-6636

Interventions in Pediatric Dentistry: Open Access Journal

Review Article(ISSN: 2637-6636)

Treponema Infections and Orofacial Involvement

Volume 5 - Issue 3

Nanda Rachmad Putra Gofur1*, Aisyah Rachmadani Putri Gofur2, Soesilaningtyas3, Rizki Nur Rachman Putra Gofur4, Mega Kahdina4 and Hernalia Martadila Putri4

  • Author Information Open or Close
    • 1Department of Health, Faculty of Vocational Studies, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia
    • 2Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia
    • 3Department of Dental Nursing, Poltekkes Kemenkes, Indonesia
    • 4Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia

    *Corresponding author:Nanda Rachmad Putra Gofur, Department of Health, Faculty of Vocational Studies, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

Received:January 12, 2021;   Published: January 19, 2021

DOI: 10.32474/IPDOAJ.2021.05.000214

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Introduction: Oral Hairy Leukoplakia (OHL) is a hyperplastic mucocutaneous epithelial cell disease, induced by Epstein Barr virus (EBV). The clinical appearance of OHL is as white, corrugated, painless, and asymptomatic lesion, as a patch that cannot be removed by scrapping, located often bilaterally on lateral borders of the tongue. The prevalence of OHL was reported to be 20% in asymptomatic HIV infection in the United States to 36% with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Worldwide 2006, the prevalence of OHL in Brazil was 28,8%, also reported a prevalence of 38.8% and 21,8% in northern and southern USA.

Discussion: Oral hairy leukoplakia is a specific lesion in HIV infection caused by Epstein Barr virus, and has been reported in over more than 28% patients and is a sign of disease progression. OHL appear clinically as an asymptomatic, white, or grayish white, well demarcated plaque with corrugated texture [1]. The “hairy” surface varies in size from a few millimeters to extensive lingual and oral mucosal involvement. These lesion typically occurs on the lateral tongue but may also appear on the ventral and dorsal surface of the tongue, and more rarely, on the buccal mucosa.

Conclusion: The establishment of Oral Hairy Leukoplakia as a diagnosis have a diagnostic value for HIV infection. Oral manifestations are the earliest and most important indicators of HIV infection. OHL is often wrongly diagnosed and thus proper treatment is delayed. The present of OHL in the absence of known cause of immunosuppression strongly suggest HIV infection. In the early diagnosis of OHL, health care provider must be cautious and seek further examination to establish HIV infection.

Keywords: OHL; infection; HIV; oral lesion

Abbreviations:OHL: Oral Hairy Leukoplakia; EBV: Epstein Barr Virus; AIDS: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

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