email   Email Us: phone   Call Us: +1 (914) 407-6109   57 West 57th Street, 3rd floor, New York - NY 10019, USA

Lupine Publishers Group

Lupine Publishers

  Submit Manuscript

ISSN: 2637-6679

Research and Reviews on Healthcare: Open Access Journal

Mini Review(ISSN: 2637-6679)

Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Semi-Purified Glycoside Extracted from the Leaves of Plumeriarubra (Kalachuchi) Volume 1 - Issue 1

Betina Lois Laine C Baltazar, Lyra Mae D Baluyut, Mark Ian T Ibay, Rikki Mae M Punzalan, Lois C Reyes and Renato I Dalmacio*

  • College of Pharmacy, Research and Development and Innovation Center, Philippines

Received: February 03, 2018;   Published: February 07, 2018

Corresponding author: Renato I Dalmacio, Our Lady of Fatima University, Philippines City of San Fernando, Pampanga, Philippines

DOI: 10.32474/RRHOAJ.2018.01.000104

Abstract PDF

Also view in:


The researchers focused on skin inflammation. An inflammation is a biological response of the body aiming to remove the harmful stimuli that affects a part of our body. Based on visual observation, the ancients characterized inflammation by five cardinal signs; heat (calor) is caused by the increased movement of blood through dilated vessels into the environmentally cooled extremities, also resulting on the increased redness (rubor), swelling (tumor) is the result of increased passage of fluid from dilated and permeable blood vessels into the surrounding tissues, infiltration of cells into the damaged area, and in prolonged inflammatory responses deposition of connective tissue, pain (dolor) is due to the direct effects of mediators, either from initial damage or that resulting from the inflammatory response itself, and the stretching of sensory nerves due to oedema and loss of function (functiolaesa) refers to either simple loss of mobility in a joint. (Punchard N.A., Whelan C.J., Adcock I., 2004)[1-3].


Studies were conducted using Sprague-dawley male rats having an average weight of 100- 160 grams. They were obtained from the animal house to be acclimatized to laboratory condition for three weeks before starting the experiment. Three rats were used for each step. The initial dose used was from 5mg/kg, 50mg/kg, 300mg/kg, and 2000 mg/kg body weight. The starting dose level should be that which is most likely to produce mortality in some of the dosed rats. A limit test should be conducted when the available information suggests that mortality is unlikely at the highest starting dose. It is recommended to use the starting dose of 300mg/kg when there is no information on a substance to be tested [4].

Result and Discussion

Carrageenan induced paw edema was the method used in the induction of inflammation due to the reason that, carrageenan is the phlogistic agent of choice. It is considered to be antigenic and has no systemic effect. As described by winter, the inflammation produced by carrageenan is acute, non-immune, well-researched and highly reproducible. The result of the Biological Testing using Carrageenan Induced Paw Edema shows that the 750 mg concentration of the extract exhibits the highest anti-inflammatory effect among the three concentrations [5].


After the phytochemical screening of the semi-purified glycoside extract the leaves of P.rubra constitute Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Glycosides, and Tannins. Based on the results obtained from the Fourier Transport Infrared Spectroscopy high amount of polyphenolic compound is found which indicates the presence of Glycosides. Therefore the researchers conclude that the Glycoside is the one that exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. After the Acute Oral Toxicity Testing, the researchers conclude that the extract of P. rubra administered is safe. There is significant difference between the anti-inflammatory activity of the 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/ kg concentration and the positive control. There is no significant difference between the anti-inflammatory activities of the 750 mg/ kg concentration derived from the leaves of P. rubraand the positive control.


After evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity of the semipurified glycoside extracted from the leaves of Plumeriarubra the researchers comes up with the following recommendation to widen the study regarding the activity of the plant especially on its antiinflammatory.

The following were recommended for future studies:

    a) To conduct further studies about the anti-inflammatory activity of P. rubra

    b) To isolate the pure compound that elicits the antiinflammatory effect of P. rubra

    c) To formulate a dosage form that is befit for the isolated compound.

    d) 7.4. To further develop another study using the other parts of P. rubra.

    e) 7.5. To accentuate the other pharmacological uses of P rubra using other solvent.


  1. Patel Amish J (2016) Isolation and Characterization of Lupeol from Echi- nopsechinatusRoxb Root. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Research 3(9): 385-387.
  2. Patel Mariyan R, Hiteksha S Panchal, Ajay K Saluja (2016) Identification of Terpenoids and Steroidal Compounds in Caryotaurens Leaves by Column Chromatography and Various Spectroscopic Techniques. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 5(5): 1610-1622.
  3. Mali Akash (2015) Formulation and Evaluation of Multipurpose Herbal Cream. IJSR International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) 4(11): 1495-1498.
  4. More BH, SN Sakharwade, SV Tembhurne, DM Sakarkar (2013) Evaluation for Skin Irritancy Testing of Developed Formulations Containing Extract of Butea monosperma for Its Topical Application. International Journal of Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
  5. Sarpate RV, SV Tupkari (2012) Quantification of Lupeol Isolated from Strobilanthus callosus Nees Using Validated High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography Method. International Journal of Pharm Tech Research 4(3): 963-969.