Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Nesseria
Gonorrhoea at the Genitourinary Medicine
Clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Volume 1 - Issue 5
Meena Nithianandan and Azura Mohd Affandi*
Open or Close
- Department of Dermatology, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Azura Mohd Affandi, Department of Dermatology, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Received: May 07, 2018; Published: May 14, 2018
To view the Full Article Peer-reviewed Article PDF
Background: In the era of super bugs, there is a need to monitor antibiotic resistance patterns. Due to the emergence of
antimicrobial resistance worldwide, local antibiotic resistance patterns should be monitored periodically to alert early intervention.
This audit was conducted to analyse the antibiotic resistance patterns among the gonococcal urethritis cases that presented to the
Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) Clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL), Malaysia.
Methodology: This is a retrospective study on the antibiotic resistance patterns based on 370 culture positive gonorrhoea
obtained from urethral swab samples sent between 2011 and 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by standard disc diffusion
method was performed to detect sensitivity to penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, azithromycin and ceftriaxone. All
data was obtained from microbiology report and patient records.
Results: A total of 370 positive culture isolates of N.gonorrhoeae (new and recurrent cases) from 2011 to 2015 were reviewed.
Highest level of resistance detected was to azithromycin (100%, 64/64) followed by tetracycline (82.8%, 293/354). Resistance
to penicillin was noted in 60.9% (224/368) of all isolates. Both penicillin and tetracycline showed a decreasing resistance trend
from 2011-2015. The fourth commonest antibiotic resistance was to ciprofloxacin at 46.5% (158/340). Cephalosporins tested were
cefuroxime and ceftriaxone, which showed resistance rates of 2.7% (6/219) and 0.8% (3/364), respectively.
Conclusion: The complete resistance to azithromycin is alarming since it is a common antibiotic used to treat urethral discharge
using the syndromic approach. Penicillin and tetracycline resistance remain high in Malaysia and other Western Pacific countries.
The current first line antibiotic for treating gonorrhoea in GUM Clinic, HKL is ceftriaxone. Clinicians should be aware of the newly
discovered increase in resistance observed to ceftriaxone.
Keywords: Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Gonorrhoea; Antibiotic Resistance
Materials and Methods|