Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life threatening and fatal medical condition which usually results in death in patients that are affected even with adequate and proper medical care. Due to how uncommon this condition is, delay in diagnosis is most often the major determinant of prognosis since in many cases patient are diagnosed late in their hospital stay. It most frequently affects infants from birth to 18 months of age, but the disease is also observed in children and adults of all ages. HLH can occur as a familial or sporadic disorder, and it can be triggered by a variety of events that disrupt immune homeostasis. Infection is a common trigger both in those with a genetic predisposition and in sporadic cases.