Numerical and mathematical processing skills has a long history
from the ancient classical Greeks Plato, Aristotle Frank, Mendel 
to the birth of modern psychology, with John Dewey , Conant ,
O’Shea , suggesting that children learn numerical concepts by
reinforcement, not in an abstract way, by identifying similarities,
differences of empirical individual units, forming general concepts.
This essay follows through the recent evolution of neuroimaging
studies debate, sets the theoretical context of three dominant
theories that influenced the context of research tools/methods;
and how neuroscientific research has contributed uniquely to
the understanding of numerosity.