Early dental caries is a common devastating disease of early childhood but can be prevented easily by simple methods. It is
more common in developing countries and poor socioeconomic status but can be found in all settings. Different bacteria interacting
with host salivary molecules, play a role in the development and aggravation of these lesions. Newer techniques for diagnosis,
bacterial isolation, as well as treatment are coming up. Clinicians and researchers should be abreast with new developments to
ensure proper diagnosis and treatment of these cases.