RandbaranE*, DayangL, Zahari R, Sultan MTH and Mazlan N
Received: July 05, 2020; Published: August 20, 2020
*Corresponding author: Randjbaran E, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor DarulEhsan, West Malaysia
With today’s growing interest toward composite materials and their augmentation as part of integrated business from aerospace engineering, medical applications and others, which are getting increasing dependency on composite materials in recent operations. However, the most sophisticated composite materials still need to rely on the other integrated sub-sets of components. On the other hand, there certain limitation and flaws that exist within composite materials’ component that can cause and error to grow way beyond control and can impact its main master component. These sorts of limitation and flaws also would impact the engineering targets from perspective of resiliency built into the daily operations that is also pointed it out in current article.
Keywords:Composite material; laminate; carbon nanotubes; carbon fibre reinforced composites (CFRP)
The composite materials are produced when two or more different materials are laminated together. These laminae were found to have numerous uses due their high strength to weight ratio and resistance to corrosion and surface degradation.(Figure 1)briefly explains the composition of a composite material. Optimizing the construction of composites, multiple adjusted layers (laminae) use to form a laminate. (Figure 2) illustrates layers of individual laminates having different fibre directions combined to form a laminate. By changing the direction of the fibres in the resin, the material properties can be tailored to fit the required properties in a structure.The fibre reinforcement plays a major role in determining the structural properties in a composite material. Since the fibre is held together with the matrix resin, it optimizes the properties in the final part such as strength and stiffness, while still minimizing weight. The primary function of the fibers is to carry the loads along their longitudinal directions. Common fiber reinforcing agents include:
a. Carbon (Graphite)
b. Glass (E-glass, S-glass, D-glass)
c. Polyamide (Aromatic polyamide, Aramid), e.g., Kevlar 29
d. Quartz (Fused silica)
Resins have a wide variation in properties, and they are
relatively low cost. Due to this, most composite matrices are made
of resins. Aside from protecting the fibres from mechanical and/or
environmental damages, the matrix also serves to transfer stresses
between the reinforcing fibres. Common resin material includes:
e. Vinyl Ester
Polyesters are the most widely used resin systems. Epoxies comes in second for their higher cost, with advantages of having higher adhesion and less shrinkage than polyesters. Using composites has their own pros and cons. Depending on their purposes, trade-offs should be considered when implementing composites in a design. (Table 1)summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of composites.
Composites have been incorporated in many fields. This includes from household items to construction parts. Several household items which incorporated composites are window frames, bathtubs and doors. Sporting goods such as rackets and bicycles also implemented the use of carbon nanotubes and carbon fibre reinforced composites (CFRP) respectively. In public infrastructures, several bridges and utility poles have been using composites in its construction. Among the composites implemented were carbon composites and glass composites(Figure 3). Due to its high strength-to-weight ratio, composites are highly demanded in the aerospace industry. Weight is a critical parameter in aerospace. It affects the flying capabilities of an aircraft. Previously, aircraft structures consisted of only metal, which results in a heavy overall structure. Once composites were introduced, they were found to be able to significantly reduce the weight of the aircraft while providing comparable or even higher structural integrity than that of metals at the same time.
Nowadays, more and more aircrafts are incorporating composites in its design to make it lighter. A lighter aircraft also means less fuel consumption and therefore allows lower emission of greenhouse gasses. Among commercial aircrafts which incorporated composites in its design are the Airbus A380 and Boeing 787 Dreamliner. The A380 contains about 25-30 tons of composites, 85% of which is CFRP. On the other hand, 50% of the B787 Dreamliner is comprised of composites, with the remainder being 20% aluminum and 30% titanium.(Figures 4&5) show the composition of composites implemented in the aircrafts respectively.
Fibre-reinforced composite materials own various functions
in most industries, especially the aerospace industry, due to the
high specific stiffness. Nonetheless, the expense of conventional
composites is also noticeable. Ordinarily, Haphazard divided
fibre reinforced composite materials appeared as affirming the
most outstanding alternative materials for unique manufacturing
challenges, joining the methods and the basic material selection
considerations for multi-material lightweight structures due to
the mass production capabilities and low cost . For instance,
the possible use in the automotive industry was recorded. In
contemplation of expanding the application, meticulous material
characterisation is needed. Subsequently, the major complication
in the quite exploring models of the geometry at the micro-level of
35-40% fibre volume ratios, which is even more appeared at the
highest aspect ratio among the different types of reinforcements
Glass-fibre reinforced composite materials showed limited applications in terms of construction and building industry for several years. Recently, well potential for the applications of fibrereinforced composite materials for the numerous applications due to expeditiously retrofit and repair deteriorating infrastructure is being achieved . Moreover, mechanical properties of fibrereinforced composite materials closely depend upon the properties of the component materials such as void content, type, orientation, fibre distribution and quantity. On the other hand, the main concept of the interfacial bonds and the mechanism of load transfer at inter laminar also play a vital role .Accordingly, varied researchers discuss about the design process of short fibres reinforced composite materials. Therefore, they are ready for using to aim attention at the strength properties of the composite materials that reported the effects of them on shapes of the fibres in shortfibres glass composite materials . The flexural strength, vertical stress generated by bending moment of avoided short-fibres reinforced composites were studied by considering the effects of fibre orientation and length on mechanical properties. In addition, a short while ago, efforts to reduce the weight of automobiles by the increased use of plastics and their composites, have led to a growing penetration of short-fibre reinforced injection moulding thermoplastics into fatigue-sensitive applications . Mainly, shortfibre- resin matrix composite materials are minor fatigue resistance than the correspondingly continuous fibre reinforced composites, which is extensively applied in the piping and pipeline systems and the pressure vessels for all major chemical industries .
The flexural strength, vertical stress generated by bending moment of avoided short-fibres reinforced composites were studied by considering the effects of fibre orientation and length on mechanical properties. In addition, a short while ago, efforts to reduce the weight of automobiles by the increased use of plastics and their composites, have led to a growing penetration of shortfibre reinforced injection moulding thermoplastics into fatiguesensitive applications. Mainly, short-fibre-resin matrix composite materials are minor fatigue resistance than the correspondingly continuous fibre reinforced composites, which is extensively applied in the piping and pipeline systems and the pressure vessels for all major chemical industries[9-15].
There is no conflict of interest to declare.
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