Once upon a time matter existed. It did nothing. It existed. It was
the size of a pebble. However, it had components. These components
had a high attraction to one another. At some point one of these
components became unstable. It no longer was attracted to the
other components, but, was repelled by them. There was release of
energy and matter divided. In that instant the pebble expanded to
astronomical scope. This is currently named the “Big Bang Theory”
of the origins of the universe. Expansion of the universe continues
today, but, Hawking Hertog  have presented evidence that
constant inflation into multiverses is not our future. They conclude
that the exit from eternal inflation is finite and reasonably smooth
for a system that is 13.8 billion years old.
Within that expansion over the past 13.8 billion years a number
of planets have been created that could support life. Earth is one of
those planets. There are many theories of how life on this planet
began. Most scientific evidence supports the development of single
cell organisms about 3 billion years ago. The Miller-Urey experiment
conducted in 1953  attempted to replicate conditions that
existed in the early Earth. An electrical spark simulating lightning
was introduced into system containing water and basic organic
components: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Within one
day their system contained several amino acids, the building blocks
of protein, and simple carbohydrates. Abiogenesis is the process by
which these nonliving components are thought to have developed
into living cells. It is the predominant theory in biology today.
The development of multicellular organisms through
cooperation among cells according to Anderson  has one
universal requirement, the emergence of primordial life cycles.
Without this cheat cells cause the system to fragment into chaos.
However, cheating cells (ones that do not contribute to the integrity
of the group) allow groups to change, i.e. evolution to take place.
Multicellular systems without cheats weaken and die. The first
multicellular organisms seem to have developed about 600 million
years ago. Plants were multicellular organisms that got established
on Earth in the sea and eventually on land. The origin of plants
came from green algae that lived in damp areas 420 million years
ago. Basic to plant life was the development of photosynthesis that
utilized radiant energy from the Sun. That provided a food source
for herbivorous animals, but, it isn’t clear that the first animals
were necessarily herbivorous. Among the unicellular living things
were cells that consumed other cells, i.e. carnivores. Obviously,
particularly in the sea, life preceded photosynthesis. It was a living
system of carnivores and, eventually, omnivores.
Among the omnivores, Homo sapiens evolved on land and came
to occupy the top of the food chain. The oldest fossil of a human
ancestor dates from 3.2 million years ago and was found at a site
called Aramis in the Middle Awash region of the Afar desert in
Ethiopia. Since the development of Anthropology as a field of study
in the early 19th Century scholars have disagreed about different
theories of human development. Regardless of how humans
developed they fed themselves in two ways:
a. Hunting and gathering; or
When hunting and gathering predominated a mobile lifestyle
not easily confined within borders also predominated. Urban
living could only be achieved at the expense of others. Slavery was
a common practice and wars were often fought to obtain slaves.
Hunting and gathering has also led to cannibalism when food
supplies were low. Feldman  has described the Native American
tribal system before the arrival of European colonists. Headhunting,
cannibalism and human sacrifice were practiced in North America.
Hunting and gathering has seldom led to humane practices.
Agriculture has been the predominant way that human society
has fed itself since 10,000 BCE. This imposed a new set of problems.
Borders and possession of land became a major cause of warfare.
Slavery was still rampant, but, slaves were seldom eaten. People
developed special skills as they stayed in one place. Eventually,
animal power began to replace slaves. The development of the
horse collar in the 12th Century became one of the most important
advances during the Middle Ages . It was originally invented
in China during the 5th Century and allowed the use of horses in
place of oxen. The full power of the horse could be used without cutting off the air supply to the animal. Food production increased
and slavery was no longer necessary for productive farming. Once
the food supply was adequate people became more concerned
about the kind of food they were eating. Nutrition was born as an