email   Email Us: info@lupinepublishers.com phone   Call Us: +1 (914) 407-6109   57 West 57th Street, 3rd floor, New York - NY 10019, USA

Lupine Publishers Group

Lupine Publishers

ISSN: 2638-6070

Scholarly Journal of Food and Nutrition

Mini Review(ISSN: 2638-6070)

Mini-Review Study of Adulterants and Diluents in Some Seized Amphetamine-Type Stimulant

Volume 2 - Issue 1

Faisal Aqlan3, Saleh Bajamal1, Mjadi Jamal Alil1, Abdulmajeed Allahyani1, Marwan Al johani1, Faisal Alharbi1, Mohammed Baeshen2 and Al-Farga Ammar1

  • 1Department of Biochemistry, University of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • 2Department of Biology, University of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • 3Department of Chemistry, University of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Received: May 06, 2019;   Published: May 14, 2019

*Corresponding author: Al-Farga Ammar, Department of Biochemistry, University of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

DOI: 10.32474/SJFN.2019.02.000127

 

Abstract PDF

Introduction

Drug

The definition of a drug is “any substance that in any part of the body changes normal metabolism”. It also refers to any chemical substance taken to cure or prevent disease, improve mental or physical performance, or deal with reality or escape it. Drug abuse is nowadays a major global societal and economic problem. Analysis of abused drugs and their metabolites in human blood, urine, saliva, sweat, and hair, etc., has been a hot topic of research in recent years as an important step in monitoring drug abuse [1].

Illicit drug

There are many illegal drugs that are highly addictive and pose serious risks. Using these drugs usually starts as an experiment or as a result of curiosity. Other times, it may start with the medication prescribed for prescription pain to treat an illness or injury. A user may become hooked overtime on the drug’s mental or physical effects. This leads the user to need more of the substance to have the same effects. A person with an illegal drug addiction will often endanger their health and safety without help. In many parts of the world, the use of legally banned psychotropic substances for non - medical purposes appears to be increasing [2-4], but the rate of increase is difficult to quantify. The prevalence of this behavior and its adverse health effects on individual societies is difficult to estimate because this behavior is unlawful and therefore often hidden. It is difficult even to estimate mortality associated with illicit drug use, the most tangible adverse health effect, for reasons discussed below [5]. Nevertheless, efforts must be made to estimate the contribution that illicit drug use makes to the global burden of disease because it is a pattern of behavior that has a significant adverse effect on the health and well - being of those involved, resulting in significant loss of life and disability [6].

Literature survey of amphetamine

Amphetamine, a powerful stimulant of the central nervous system (CNS), is used for syndrome treatment [7,8]. Its derivatives were abused as recreational drugs and used as unlawful euphoria. There is a high risk of dependence, so many countries have issued strict regulations to control their consumption and reduce the abuse of amphetamines. For example, amphetamines in the United Kingdom categorized as Class B while in Canadian law they are in Class I. They are also classified as illegal drugs in the European Union [9,10]. For many years, amphetamine and its derivatives have been the classic, illegal drugs of abuse, but have recently been replaced by a new legal alternative substance class, the cathinone - derivatives, to undermine drug regulatory law [11]. Cathinone is a natural beta - keto amphetamine analogue which forms the main component of the “Khat” plant leaves of Catha edulis [11]. Cathinone - derivatives abuse has grown significantly throughout the world due to their amphetamine - like stimulant effects [12,13].

Occurrence and toxicity of amphetamine

Methamphetamine (METH) and its 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) derivative are widely used psychostimulant medicines. Euphoria, alertness, decreased appetite, increased locomotive activity, and hyperthermia are the acute effects of these drugs. Psychosis, aggressiveness, and neurotoxicity may result from long - term abuse of METH and MDMA. Especially due to its strong euphoric properties, METH has a very high potential for abuse. According to recent reports from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) [14], METH and MDMA abuse is an extremely serious and growing problem in the U.S. and around the world. The use of METH and MDMA has been documented among significantly diverse populations. For example, the use of amphetamines is increasing among young adults who attend “raves” or private clubs. METH use is also high among people with HIV infection [14]. Although the acute effects of these drugs are relatively well known, the long - term effects and potential neurotoxicity associated with these drugs are unclear.

Adulterants and diluents in amphetamine

Illicit drugs are seldom sold or used in their pure state throughout the world [15]. They are often mixed with other substances to provide a more manageable dosing unit [16]. Heroin, amphetamine, and cocaine are often extensively mixed or “cut” with a variety of substances, adulterants, and/or diluents to make it appear that a larger quantity of drug is actually present, thereby increasing the dealer’s profit [17,18]. It is important to identify potential hazardous substances contaminating illicit drugs because these substances may be more toxic than the drug itself. Examples of dangerous mixtures sold on the European drug market are cocaine adulterated with atropine [19] or phenytoin [20]. Detailed knowledge and understanding of street drug cutting agents can provide distribution route information [21,22]. Comparative analysis can also support the composition of cutting agents linking two or more samples together [23]. Therefore, it is important to know about possible changes in the prevalence of these substances. Previous studies of adulterants and diluents seized in Denmark have shown ongoing shifting patterns in the use and distribution of various cutting substances [17,18].

Detection and determination of amphetamine

A body of substances known as “designer drugs” has been chemically synthesized in recent years with similar effects to those of the oldest drugs. They include amphetamines that the pharmaceutical industry initially developed and abandoned due to their lack of therapeutic interest but are now being used as abuse drugs. The 1990s saw a shift from the previous decade in the pattern of drug consumption. Heroin and cocaine were the prevailing drugs used about ten or fifteen years ago, and although they continue to be present in many drug addiction cases, amphetamines have largely replaced them in recent years. Of special interest among the latter are MDA and MDMA, the most widely used. Other amphetamines of habitual use at present include MA, AP, and MDEA. A number of experiments have shown that immunological techniques currently available are scarcely specific and therefore likely to yield many false positive and negative factors [23,24] this requires the use of more sensitive methods such as gas chromatography (GC) for confirmation [25-27].This technique is sensitive and selective enough for this type of determination.

Conventional GC-MS method for analysis of amphetamine

Gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC – MS) using electron impact (EI) ionization mode is the most widely used abuse analysis technique [28]. Different enantioselective methods for the enantio separation of amphetamine and its derivatives have been developed using several analytical techniques, such as gas chromatography (GC) [29,30], capillary electrophoresis (CE) [30,31], high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) [30,11] and more recently capillary electrochromatography Despite the availability of different types of chiral stationary phases, sometimes with broad chiral discrimination ability, it is still not an easy task to develop chiral separation) [32,33]. Small changes in the solvent structure or / and chromatographic / electrophoretic environment often have major effects on the ability of many CSPs to resolve chirals. Furthermore, it is difficult to predict which CSP might be suitable for the manan - separation of a given chiral molecule and most of the time one relies on a trial - and - error approach that is a time - consuming, labor - consuming, and money - consuming process [34]. For many separation techniques, different strate - gies have been defined, such as normal phase liquid chromatography [35], reversed phase liquid chromatography [36], polar organic solvent chromatography [37], supercritical fluid chromatography [38] and capillary electrochromatography [39].

References

  1. Yang Yunyun, Junhui Wu, Jiewei Deng, KeYuan, Xi Chen, et al. (2018) Rapid and on-site analysis of amphetamine-type illicit drugs in whole blood and raw urine by slug-flow microextraction coupled with paper spray mass spectrometry. Analytica chimica acta 1032: 75-82.
  2. Frischer M, Green ST, Goldberg D (1994) Substance abuse related mortality: A worldwide review. United Nations International Drug Control Programme, Vienna.
  3. UNDCP (2000) Global illicit drug trends. United Nations International Drug Control Programme, Vienna.
  4. UNODCCP (2000) World drug report. United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  5. Thorley A, Oppenheimer E, Stimson GV (1977) Clinic attendance and opiate prescription status of heroin addicts over a six-year period. British Journal of Psychiatry 130: 565-569.
  6. Hulse G, English D, Milne E, Holman C (1999) The quantification of mortality resulting from the regular use of illicit opiates. Addiction 94: 221-230.
  7. Heal DJ, Smith SL, Gosden J, Nutt DJ (2013) Amphetamine past and present-a pharmacological and clinical perspective. J Psychopharmacol 27(6): 479-496.
  8. Hodgkins P, Shaw M, McCarthy S, Sallee FR (2012) The pharmacology and clinical outcomes of amphetamines to treat ADHD. CNS Drugs 26(3): 245–268.
  9. Class A, B and C drugs, Home Office, Government of the United Kingdom.
  10. Chawla S, Le Pichon T (2006) World Drug Report. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.
  11. Taschwer M, Hofer MG, Schmid MG (2014) Enantioseparation of benzofurys andother novel psychoactive compounds by CE and sulfobutylether-cyclodextrin as chiral selector added to the BGE. Electrophoresis 35(19): 2793–2799.
  12. Murray JB (1998) Psychophysiological aspects of amphetamine-methamphetamine abuse. J Psychol 132(2): 227–237.
  13. Costa e Silva JA (2002) Evidence-based analysis of the worldwide abuse of licit andillicit drugs. Hum Psychopharmacol Clin 17(3): 131–140.
  14. Mitchell SJ, Morris SR, Kent CK, Stansell J, Klausner JD (2006) Methamphetamine use and sexual activity among HIV-infected patients in care–San Francisco, 2004. AIDS Patient Care STDS 20(7): 502–510.
  15. Lindholst C, Andreasen MF, Kaa E (2008) Det illegale stofmarked i Aarhus (The illicit drug market in Aarhus). Aarhus University Press: Aarhus, Denmark 170(1): 54-57.
  16. Katz Alan A, Robert S Hoffman, Robert A Silverman (1993) Phenytoin toxicity from smoking crack cocaine adulterated with phenytoin. Annals of emergency medicine 22(9): 1485-1487.
  17. Kaa Elisabet (1994) Impurities, adulterants and diluents of illicit heroin. Changes during a 12-year period. Forensic Science International 64(2-3): 171-179.
  18. Kaa Elisabet, Kaempe Bent (1986) Impurities, adulterants and diluents of illicit heroin in Denmark (Jutland and Funen). Forensic science international 31(3): 195-210.
  19. Madae’en S, Bostamy B, Jaber D, Wazaify M (2015) Death of a middle-aged man after long term abuse of a combination anticholinergic, beta blockers and narcotic drugs: a suspected Münchausen syndrome case report. J Addict Neuropharmacol 2(1): 7-9.
  20. Katz Alan A, Robert S Hoffman, Robert A Silverman (1993) Phenytoin toxicity from smoking crack cocaine adulterated with phenytoin. Annals of emergency medicine 22(9): 1485-1487.
  21. Van Der Slooten EPJ, Van Der Helm HJ (1975) Analysis of heroin in relation to illicit drug traffic. Forensic science 6(1): 83-89.
  22. King LA (1997) Drug content of powders and other illicit preparations in the UK. Forensic Science International 85(2): 135-147.
  23. Papa P, Rocchi L, Mainardi C, Donzelli G (1997) Buflomedil interference with the monoclonal EMIT d.a.u amphetamine/methylamphetamine immunoassay. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 35: 369-370.
  24. Schmolke M, Hallbach J, Guder WG (1996) False positive results for urine amphetamines and opiate immunoassays in a patient intoxicated with perazine. Clin Chem 42: 1725-1726.
  25. Centini F, Masti A, Barni Comparini I (1996) Quantitative and qualitative analysis of MDMA, MDEA, MA and amphetamine in urine by headspace/solid phase microextraction (SPME) and GC-MS. Forensic Sci Int 83: 161-166.
  26. Hegadoren KM, Baker GB, Coutts RT (1993) The simultaneous separation and quantitation of the enantiomers of MDMA and MDA using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. Res Comm Subst Abuse 14: 67-80.
  27. Thompson WC, Dasgupta A (1994) Microwave induced rapid preparation of fluoroderivatives of amphetamine, methylamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine for GC–MS confirmation assays Clin Chem 40: 1703-1706.
  28. Wu, Ya Hsueh (2008) Integration of GC/EI-MS and GC/NCI-MS for simultaneous quantitative determination of opiates, amphetamines, MDMA, ketamine, and metabolites in human hair Journal of Chromatography B 870(2): 192-202.
  29. Morrison C, Smith FJ, Tomaszewski T, Stawiarska K, Biziuk M, et al. (2011) Chiral gaschromatography as a tool for investigations into illicitly manufactured methylamphetamine, Chirality 23(7): 519-522.
  30. Mohr S, Pilaj S, Schmid MG (2012) Chiral separation of cathinone derivatives used as recreational drugs by cyclodextrin-modified capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis 33(11): 1624-1630.
  31. Scarcella D, Tagliaro F, Turrina S, Manetto GY, Nakahara FP, et al. (1997) Optimization of a simple method for the chiral separation of phenethylamines of forensic interest based on cyclodextrin complexation capillary electrophoresis and its preliminary application to the analysis of human urine and hair Forensic Sci Int 89(1): 33-46.
  32. Wistuba D, Schurig V (2000) Enantiomer separation of chiral pharmaceuticals by capillary electrochromatography. J Chromatogr A 875(1): 255-276.
  33. Jiskra J, Claessens HA, Cramers CA (2003) Stationary and mobile phases in capillary electrochromatography (CEC). J Sep Sci 26(15-16): 1305-1330.
  34. Zhang Y, Wu, Wang-Iverson DB, Tymiak AA (2005) Enantioselectivechromatography in drug discovery Drug Discov Today 10(8): 571-577.
  35. Younes AA, Mangelings D, Vander Heyden Y (2011) Chiral separations innormal-phase liquid chromatography: enantioselectivity of recentlycommercialized polysaccharide-based selectors Part I. Enantioselectivityunder generic screening conditions. J Pharm Biomed Anal 55: 414-423.
  36. Younes AA, Mangelings D, Vander Heyden Y (2012) Chiral separations inreversed-phase liquid chromatography: evaluation of severalpolysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases for a separation strategyupdate. J Chromatogr A 1269: 154-167.
  37. Younes AA, Mangelings D, Vander Heyden Y (2013) Enantioselectivity ofpolysaccharide-based chiral selectors in polar organic solventschromatography: implementation of chlorinated selectors in a separationstrategy. J Pharm Biomed Anal 74: 1-13.
  38. De Klerck K, Tistaert C, Mangelings D, Vander Heyden Y (2013) Updating a genericscreening approach in sub-or supercritical fluid chromatography for the enantio resolution of pharmaceuticals. J Supercrit Fluids 80: 50-59.
  39. Hendrickx, Mangelings D, Chankvetadze B, Vander Heyden Y (2011) Updating achiral separation strategy for non-acidic drugs with capillary electrochromatography applicable for both chlorinated and non-chlorinated polysaccharide selectors Electrophoresis 32(19): 2718-2726.
Close

Online Submission System

Drag and drop files here

or

Browse Files
( For multiple files submission, zip them in a single file to submit. For file zipping software Download )