This study was primarily undertaken to review the current status of fish seed production at freshwater sector of West Bengal,
Bihar and Assam – three leading seed producing states of India (Figure 1) and its distribution range within the state and throughout
the country. Main emphasis of the work was to assess how far the current practices are following the principle objectives of the
technology i.e. production and supply of quality seed out of captive breeding. With the immediate standardization of the technology,
West Bengal farmers adopted the technology of their own (in 98% cases) and started practicing the technology, initially through
hapa breeding and afterwards through the establishment of Chinese hatchery. The realization of huge profit margin within a short
period (4-6 months), attracted people from diverse sectors and soon mushroom hatcheries came, who started practicing seed
production by learning the mechanical aspects of the technology from neighboring farmers.
The profit-making proposition attracted farmers from Assam and Bihar, who by learning the mechanical aspects of the technology
from ignorant fish breeders of Bengal, started seed production in captivity by hiring skilled laborer from Bengal, which continues
still today. Even today the entire hatchery operation in Bihar and part of the hatchery operations in Assam is under the control of
hired people from Bengal. Misappropriation and profit-making proposition  of the technology and subsequent deterioration of
quality starts from this point. In the subsequent years, the fish breeders, not being apprised of their faulty breeding practices due
to want of any primary training on their part, used the technology only for profit. In the compromization with quantity, quality lost
its fragrance and as a consequence a worthy technology became a curse in disguise for the sector.
Within very short period of introduction of technology, the ignorant farmers started practicing improper breeding practices
like mixed spawning, use of small number of under aged and undersized breeding population and indiscriminate hybridization
for their profit and convenience. Mixed spawning leads to hybridization inadvertently and ultimately affect the native gene pool.
Maintenance of small number of founder population leads to inbreeding and the obvious genetic consequences are the increased
fry deformities (37.6%), decreased food conversion efficiency (15.6%) and fry survival (19%). Again, the undesirable hybrids [2,3]
when find their way into natural system results in “genetic intermixing” and affects the genetic biodiversity of the native fish fauna of
Bengal. Along with these the fish breeders are introducing alien fishes almost every year without maintaining any code of practice.
This alien introduction and repeated use of unauthorized drugs and feeds (composition totally unknown) severely affecting the
native biodiversity and unless checked early it may lead to the extinction of some of the prized fishes of Bengal.