Organophosphorus compounds derived from crop-based alcohols and phenols represent attractive alternatives to traditional
flame retardants which persist as environmental contaminants and act as a source of human disease. Isosorbide, a cyclic diether diol,
may be readily obtained from starch produced by many cereal grains. It serves as a biobased for the generation of several families
of effective phosphorus flame retardants. Crop-based phenolics, 3,4,5-triydroxybenzoic acid (gallic acid) and 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic
acid, also serve as important BioSource’s for the generation of phosphorus compounds with strong flame-retarding properties.