Background: The increasing complexity of medical care environment, and medical education and practices made understanding
the principles and concepts of training, development, and the related concepts and disciplines necessary for doctors practicing at
almost any level in a healthcare system. The aim of this paper is to identify the essential training knowledge needed by physicians
working in the field of professional training and development (Professional trainers) and medical schools’ instruction. These
essential knowledges should include in the content of any training of the trainer (TOT) courses conducted for physicians.
Materials and methods: More than 100 relevant publications were identified and reviewed.
Results: The essential training knowledge needed by physicians working in the field of professional training and development
(Professional trainers) included adequate knowledge about accreditation of a training course, the need for professional training,
training and development in a healthcare organization, domains of change during training, the influences of professional training
and development, the training process (Stages of the training process, training needs, training needs analysis methods, training
needs analysis methods, Setting SMART training objectives), designing an effective training course, Popular training methods, What
a professional trainer needs to understand and do before and during a training course development, ,how to conduct a professional
training course , the main principles of training course evaluation, the evaluation of a training course using Kirkpatrick’s four
levels of evaluation, the commonly used methods of instruction and training, training and instruction effectiveness, training and
instruction effectiveness evaluation, participants learning assessment during training and instruction, learning process for trainers
and instructors, VAK learning model, VARK learning model of Neil D. Fleming, the 4MAT learning model of Bernice McCarthy, the
application of learning theories in training and instruction, the cognitive (knowledge-based) domain of learning and training ,
Bloom’s taxonomy and its practical value in training and medical schools’ instruction, behaviorist model of learning (The operant
conditioning), the ideas of John Dewey relevant to training and instruction, constructivist learning theory, Jean Piaget’s cognitive
theory, the practical applications of Jean Piaget ideas in training and instruction, Lev Vygotsky ideas’ practical application in training
and instruction including the zone of proximal development, the concept of Instructional scaffolding suggested by Jerome Seymour
Brunerm, the fundamental principles of learning relevant to training and medical schools’ instruction, the fundamental principles
of learning relevant to training and medical schools’ instruction, the principles of Adult learning (Andragogy) suggested by Malcolm
Shepherd Knowles, the principles of the constructivist’s approaches for adult training and instruction, the main principles of adult
training and instruction that distinguish adult learners from children and youth, the principles of making presentation, what a TOT
course is all about and he need for TOT courses.
Conclusion: This research article provided a compendium of the essential training knowledge needed by physicians working in
the field of professional training and development (Professional trainers).
Keywords: Professional training; physician development; medical schools’ instruction; TOT courses