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ISSN: 2637-4722

Progressing Aspects in Pediatrics and Neonatology

Review Article(ISSN: 2637-4722)

Resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae on oral and mucosa : A Review Article Volume 3 - Issue 2

Nanda Rachmad Putra Gofur1, Aisyah Rachmadani Putri Gofur2, Soesilaningtyas3, Rizki Nur Rachman Putra Gofur4, Mega Kahdina4, Hernalia Martadila Putri4

  • 1Department of Health, Faculty of Vocational Studies, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • 2Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • 3Department of Dental Nursing, Poltekkes Kemenkes, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • 4Faculty Of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

Received: March 12, 2021   Published: March 22, 2021

Corresponding author: Nanda Rachmad Putra Gofur, Department of Health, Faculty of Vocational Studies, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

DOI: 10.32474/PAPN.2021.03.000158

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Introduction: Gonorrhea is one of the four most common sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. Globally, the highest incidence of gonorrhea cases is in the African and Western Pacific regions (including China, Indonesia and Australia). Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae. These bacteria are gram-negative bacteria in the form of diplococci located intracellularly from PMN cells. Infection from Neisseria gonorrhoeae can be transmitted by sexual intercourse or vertical transmission at the time of delivery. In children, infection can occur as a result of sexual abuse by an individual infected with Gonorrhea or it can also occur from touching items contaminated with N. gonorrhoeae bacteria.

Discussion: Gonococcal infection occurs by invading the mucosa, so that gonococcal infection can occur in many places. Gonococcal infection can occur in male and female external genitalia, anorectal, pharynx and eyes. There can be a local infection in the genital area (most common), infection in the abdominal cavity (peritonitis), infection around the liver (perihepatitis), meningitis, endocarditis, dermatitis, arthritis and can spread to the bloodstream and cause a Disseminated Gonococcal Infection (DGI) which can spread systemically. The manifestations of gonococcal infection in the female external genitalia can be asymptomatic but may also include periurethral edema and urethritis. There may be a purulent discharge from the cervix but it does not represent vaginitis, dysuria or painful urination, dyspareunia or pain during sexual intercourse and lower abdominal pain. There can also be a vulvovaginitis, bartolin abscess, and in gonococcal infections that are not treated properly, a complication can occur in the form of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), characterized by lower abdominal pain, increased body discharge from the vagina and urethra, dysuria and intermenstruals. bleeding accompanied by signs of peritonitis, endocervicitis, endosalfingitis and endometritis, causing a deep pelvic or lumbar pain. Currently, the resistance rate of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to antibiotics is increasing rapidly. This condition is not good for prognosis.

Conclusion: The administration of dual therapy with this drug regimen is expected to increase the cure rate so that it can prevent more serious complications and reduce the possibility of resistance to cephalosporins.

Keywords: Gonorrhoea; Resistance; Oral Management

Abstract| Introduction| Discussion| Clinical Manifestation| Gonorrhea Resistance| Therapeutic Management| References|