Introduction: The volume increase of a cervical lymph node is frequent in infancy .It is most often secondary to a benign
infection of the upper aerodigestive tracts [1,2]. It is a medical and surgical emergency frequently encountered in developing
countries, despite the generalization of antibiotics. Its gravity depends on the virulence of the germ and the fragility of the patient.
Patients and Methods: It’s about a retrospectively study of all the medical files records of patients under 16 years old
hospitalized at the ENT department of Fann Teaching Hospital for the management of infectious cervical lymphadenitis . The
studied period is January 1st, 2008 to November 30th, 2017.
Results: We had collected 83 medical files of patients with acute infectious cervical lymphadenitis including 66 cases of
suppurative acute lymphadenitis and 17 cases of simple acute adenitis (uncollected). The average age of our patients was 2.4 years
with extremes ranging from 1 month to 16 month. The location of swelling was the submandibular region in 57 patients, upper
jugular area in 8 patients and submental region in 6 patients. Stapphyloccocus aureus is the most frequent bacteria found in 29
cases. Initial antibiotic therapy consisted of the association of amoxicillin/clavulanic. A favorable evolution marked by an apyrexia
after 48h of treatment with regression of the swelling and a resumption of the feeding was noted in 92% of the cases. We deplored
two cases of death.
Conclusion: Acute adenitis is frequent in pediatric otorhinolaryngology. It is often secondary to oropharyngeal infections,
dental and skin diseases. The treatment is essentially based on antibiotics.