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ISSN: 2638-6003

Orthopedics and Sports Medicine: Open Access Journal

Mini Review(ISSN: 2638-6003)

Athletic Training and Adaptation Volume 3 - Issue 5

Mir Sharif Hasan*

  • North Bengal International University, Bangladesh

Received: March 16, 2020;   Published: April 08, 2020

Corresponding author: Mir Sharif Hasan Student Counselor (Sports), North Bengal International University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

DOI: 10.32474/OSMOAJ.2020.03.000174


Abstract PDF


In the field of sports and games, we understand the sport training in general sense that the preparation of sportsmen for acquiring top class performances. If we go on the particular sense of sports training it is the Physical, technico-tactical, intellectual, Psychic and moral preparation of the sportsman by physical exercises that is by physical load. In the training process different laws are practicable mainly the biological educational and psychological as well as the theoretical knowledge of the trainer and coach. But the above laws have to be correctly utilized at the time of sports training. The task to be solved by the coach and trainer which is facilitated by the formation of generally accepted principles. The above principles are valid for all pedagogical processes and also for sports training. In addition, following the laws of training, further principles were formulated which so far have been called principles of load.

Principles and Methods

The principles indicates to all branches and task of training, they find out the contents, the means and method as well as the organization of training which becomes a binding instruction for the activity of the coach because they determine the conscious and complex application of the laws of uniform sensible process because of the fact that the common experiences of the successful practice are reflected by them [1]. Standard or moderate loads lose their training effect step by step and create only insufficient or even not at all to the development of physical and psychical faculties. Interruption of loading causes stagnation of the capacity of performance for all level of athletes. The widely ratified opinion that the load after reaching high level performances can stopped or even be reduced cannot be proved. In training it must always be in a certain relation to the individual performance capacity and loading capacity. Top-level performance may be obtained by increasing the training load more quickly and who trained harder than former record holder’s in particular sports events, according to training analysis a gradual increase in loading is not as effective for the improvement of training condition as an increase in form of steps after certain intervals. Here the increased load definitely causes real contradictory reactions to the actual capacity and it must disturb the psycho-physiological balance to enforce the organism to form new regulation and adaptation process. However exact recording of the load, permanent observation of the athletes during training and the regular checking of performance development are the essential and important pre-requisites for the realization of the principles of the increasing demand. On the other hand we have year round loading principles hi the training system for a continuous development of training condition [2]. Throughout the year training guarantees a high total load which helps for performance development. Year long training should be arranged according to perspective aim, stabilization of adaptation that an athlete can able to achieve best possible results in decisive competitions of the year. In most codes of sports we can subdivide the whole year to carry out the specific aim and objective from which tasks, the means and structure of load can be derived. Volume and intensity of outer load is a key-factor for making training schedule. The training means and methods may be variable in different countries but one should follow the theory and basics of training in regard to onward effective progression. One has to point out that it is a definitely not optimum or sufficient if the main competitions are evently spread over a whole year. By this the coaches and athletes attention is directed to the subsequent qompetition in almost each case. Thus the training is not satisfaction determined according to perspective aim and there is no systematic development of the fundamental that determine the performance. For reasons of inadequacy of material pre-reqmsite, climatic adverseness and the organization defects the organizer and sports officials especially of the developing countries may plan the training according to its capabilities and the availability of the resources. For the cause of climate and other organization, a further subdivision of longer stages into section which can be better assessable. This is also important for better understanding of training methodical indexes, the trainer and coaches should be aware regarding methodical approach to training by the energy system.


In sports training the coaches and trainers must be concerned with other branches of training science for example the knowledge on sports psychology, sports biology, biomechanics and sports nutrition as well. Training is a bi responsibility for a coach because upcoming and potential trainees are coming to his coach with a strong conviction for developing his sporting performance, so if the coach do wrong in the methodical process in his instruction and workouts then the results will not be satisfactory or not even effective. One should always remember that the success of the coach depends on the expected performance of his athlete.


  1. Ritter I, Harre D (1971) Theory and Methodology of Sports Training and Competition, Study Material German College for Physical Culture Berlin.
  2. Coggan AR, BD Williams (1995) Metabolic adaptations to endurance training substrate metabolism during exercise. In exercise metabolism, Hargreaves M. Champaign, II Human Kinetics.