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Review ArticleOpen Access

Ophthalmic Manifestations of COVID-19 and its Association with Heparan Sulfate Receptors Volume 3 - Issue 3

Shyam Sundar Nandi1, Ilina Bhattacharya2, Upendra Lambe1, Sonali Sawant1, Trupti Gohil1, Tejabhiram Yadavalli2, and Deepak Shukla3*

  • 1National Institute of Virology, Mumbai Unit, A.D. Marg, Parel. Mumbai, India
  • 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, USA
  • 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, USA

Received:May 11, 2021;   Published:May 28, 2021

Corresponding author: Deepak Shukla, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA

DOI: 10.32474/TOOAJ.2021.03.000161


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Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by a novel enveloped, positive sense, single stranded RNA virus called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) started originally in Wuhan, China. By March 2020, the disease was declared a global pandemic as the virus spread to all major countries in the world. Initially, it was believed that the virus was transmitted through inhalation of respiratory droplets from an infected person. But given the exponential increase in the number of infected people, more modes of transmission were explored. While all possible routes of transmission of this virus are still undetermined many studies implicate the eyes as the initial site of infection and conjunctivitis as an early symptom of COVID-19. In this review, we summarize various studies that suggest SARS-CoV-2’s presence on ocular surfaces and that the eyes can be a gateway for transfer of SARS-CoV-2 to the extraocular sites including the lungs. We also explore the role of heparan sulfate, a newly discovered co-receptor for the virus in ocular manifestations.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Ocular; Heparan Sulfate; ACE 2; Conjunctivitis

Abstract| Introduction| SARS CoV-2 Host Cell Entry| Ocular Viral Transmission| Conjunctivitis and Its Correlation with Coronavirus| Receptors Involved in Ocular Manifestations| Role of Heparan sulfate in Ophthalmic manifestation of COVID-19| Targeting Heparan Sulfate for Therapeutic Applications| Discussion| Acknowledgement| Conflict of Interest| References|


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