Somatic mutations have been perceived as the causal event in the origin of the vast majority of cancers. Advanced massively parallel, highthroughput
DNA sequencing have enabled the comprehensive characterization of somatic mutations in a large number of tumor samples for
precision and personalized therapy. Understanding how these observed genetic alterations give rise to specific cancer phenotypes represents
an ultimate goal of cancer genomics. However, somatic mutations are also commonly found in healthy individuals, which interfere with the
effectiveness for cancer diagnostics.