With an estimated 500,000 new cases per year, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The incidence is rising in the west, largely due to an increasing incidence of hepatitis C virus infection . The majority of HCC patients are diagnosed with disease too advanced for curative treatment. Only liver resection and liver transplantation are considered curative, with poor efficiency of other modalities such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), although this may provide a modest prolongation in survival; however, the relapse in the majority of these patients is inevitable . An array of translational research and pilot clinical trials have revealed that adoptive immunotherapy’s are safe by patients with HCC, but they lack efficacy . Now, we are in the new era of immunotherapy’s such as immune checkpoint inhibitors and CAR-T strategies, which would bring benefit to the HCC patients.
Abbrevations: Hepatocellular carcinoma; Immune checkpoint inhibitors; Nivolumab; FDA