Received:November 23, 2021; Published: December 06, 2021
Corresponding author: Kefale Getnet, Department of History and Heritage Management, College of Social Sciences and Humanities, Bule Hora University, Bule Hora, Ethiopia
This research was conducted to know the challenges of continuous assessment implementation which existed in graduate students of History and Heritage management. To do this l have used both primary and secondary sources of data. The primary sources of data include interviewing, observation and photographing while secondary sources of data include reviewing books and searching internet service. The objective of this study is to overcome the problem of continuous assessment occurring in the class. The According to this study the problems cover lack of instructional media, missing class of the students, corona pandemic disease, lack time and references books in the subject matter. To address these problems the teachers and students should exercise active learning methodology in both teachers and learners, having good feedbacks of students, exercising independent learning as well as using time and instructional media properly. It concluded that the problems can achieved following reflexive way of teaching which exercised in different higher educational institutions of Ethiopia.
Background of the study
Continuous assessment refers to as the name indicates, it is the process of conducting frequent assessment for purposes of deciding how well students are achieving the learning outcomes and what you and they might do to improve their learning. Continuous assessment is a classroom strategy implemented by teachers to ascertain the knowledge, understanding, and skills attained by pupils. It categorized as summative and formative continuous assessment. Challenge may exist in every department and teachers while conducting assessment. Therefore, in this research we will try to identify the continuous assessment challenges in the case of 3rd year history and heritage management students. It may include course work, practical exercises, assignments, projects, laboratory work and ancillary written examinations or tests, depending on the program of study and on individual course making up a program. It should utilize a variety of questions to check learning and problem thinking . Yet different research on continuous assessment have been conducted in the world and Ethiopia higher education few has been done in Bule Hora University especially in History and Heritage management.
Statement of the problem
Continuous assessment is a process of checking the work or response of a student as frequently as possible so that the result can be used as a guide for improving or enhancing the achievement or behavior of the student . Teachers may face different problems while they are offering different courses. In this case it is important to conduct action research on continuous assessments problems.
So, this action research is dedicated to study continuous assessment problems of history and heritage Management of 2012 graduate class.
a) How continuous assessment implements on History and Heritage Management students?
b) What kinds of challenges occurred in both students and teachers?
c) In what extent continuous assessment other than other assessment methods?
d) What kinds of effect it has on the results of students?
Objectives of the study
The general objective of this study is to conduct research on problem of continuous assessment in in History and Heritage Management graduate students of 2012 E.C
This study has the following specific studies
a) To know the implementation methods of continuous assessment.
b) To identify the challenges of students and teachers on implementation of continuous assessment method.
c) To mention out the possible approaches use to develop continuous assessment
d) To understands the effectiveness of continuous assessment on student results.
Significant of the study
It is known that research have their own significant in the specific objectives they were able to address . Accordingly, this research has so many significant for researchers who wants to study on aspects of continuous assessment issues and students who abled to see their feedbacks on their courses (Table 1).
Method of data analysis
The method of data analysis is largely determined by the research approach one used and the methods of data collection employed, and types of data collected. Therefore, in this study, all the data that would be collected through the qualitative techniques of data collection methods and it analyzed qualitatively. Information was obtained from students specially the 2013 graduate students of history and heritage management of Bule Hora University .
Description of the study area
Assessment is the technique of evaluating, grading and monitoring the overall activity of the students in a semester. While continuous assessment is referring to evaluating student’s continuously to know their performance. In Higher Education institutes continuous assessment consists of two type. These are: Summative continuous assessment (SCA) is a process for collecting information about students’ learning that is used to make decisions about certifying, grading, reporting to parents, and promoting . Formative continuous assessment (FCA) is an ongoing process for checking learners’ readiness, understanding, difficulty, effectiveness of teaching approaches. It helps teachers and students identify what students can do with help and what they can do independently. In this action research the researchers conducted their work on 2012 graduate students of History and heritage Management by collecting relevant data on their one year stay in the university. According to our data the students have a good performance and research but have their own problems on learning and teaching process .
In order to undertake this study, the researcher used employ qualitative approach. The central point of this research is to assess the problem of continuous assessments. So, to do this we used employ systematic way of non-numerical using thorough primary and secondary approach.
Sources of data collection methods
To accomplish this research, we used both primary and secondary source of data. Primary sources of data are sources collected from class observation, by asking the performance of student and by using Focus Group Discussion (FGD) from 2nd and 3rd year History and Heritage Management students. When we collected the data we observed the learning and teaching process of students for more than four months. In each continuous assessment such as in assignment, tests, quizzes and presentation we tried to see one by one. But due to the corona virus we did not able to discuss in focused group discussion . In addition to these, secondary sources of data like reading books relevant to our study and we used internet services to develop our data.
Sampling is a representative figure of the whole activities in the study area. In the case of this the researcher employed both probabilistic and non-probable Sampling Techniques. We also used systematic way of sampling in courses that we deliberated in 2013 graduate students of History and Heritage Management .
Challenges of continuous assessment on bule hora university history and heritage management of 2012 graduate students
Covid-19 pandemic disease
The current Covid-19 crisis is challenging not only to Ethiopia but also even to the developed and powerful countries of the world. But all rounded impacts and tensions of the pandemic are so worsened among the developing countries like Ethiopia (WHO 2020). Covid-19 is a new virus and we do not know enough yet about how it affects whole community. We know it is possible for people of any age to be infected and transmit the virus. Thus, due to the halving of such pandemic disease the learning and teaching process of Bule Hora University affected in large and graduate class in particular. When we want to do continuous assessment in the form of FGD and group assessment there is a tension and frustration in the class. In addition to these, Minster of Sciences and Higher education ordered universities to accomplish the graduate classes in not more than three weeks. Due to the present of short period of time it is difficult to conduct continuous assessment in well manner. As we know to conduct CA the students should have enough periods and times. But due to the existing of corona virus the teaching and learning processes of Bule Hora University in general and continuous assessment in particular are high affected.
Lack of instructional media
There are different types of instructional media in Higher education institutions learning and teaching process. For instance, LCD, computer, internet access and white board are not adequately existed in departments. Even if these instructional media are important for the success of learning and teaching process, most of universities in Ethiopia in general and Bule Hora universities in particular could not access in every departments equally. Therefore, missing these instructional media has a lot of negative effects for teaching process. When we come to the point of our study area (2013 graduate students of History and Heritage Management) we have witnessed lack of projectors in our classes in order to accomplish the assessment in short period of time. In addition to this, lack of internet access to develop the learning habits of the students and advanced white board for teachers highly affected the learning process of students.
Students class attending problem
As we know attending class properly has great potential to apply continuous assessment effectively. It increases the participation of the students and their knowledge about the course that offered by instructors. But as we have seen in the classroom most of the students did not attend their class continuously. During this time, it difficult to assess all students equally.
Accessibility of references books
At Higher Institutions of Ethiopia guiding books of the course are the most important thing in which the universities should have at their colleges and departments. They give a valuable assistance for both the teachers and learners in order to develop their skill of knowledge in the subject matters. But according to our data the 2013 graduate students of History and Heritage management did not have sufficient books in libraries and department offices. They were not having enough references for the courses which offered by different instructors of the department. Thus, this study knows that lack of sufficient modules and books affected continuous assessment result of students and the overall learning processes of the universities. Even though it is difficult to mentioned all the challenges (problems) which existed on History and Heritage Management graduate students of 2020 we have also observed the problems of continuous assessment include: plagiarisms, lack of feedback, small class size, shortage of time, lack of facilities, awareness of the students regarding to the courses in which the teachers offering, opportunities which enable the students learning habits for instance lack of computer labs. In addition to this the learners also lacks adopting continuous assessment policies through the guide lings of course outline of the course. Which means even though the students are awarded about the content of the courses they did not follow it attentively and appropriately.
Use of continuous assessment for teachers and students at the study area
According to the information that we gathered from graduate students of history and Heritage Management continuous assessment helps students in variety of ways. It provides every student with the best learning opportunity traditional way of assessment should be replaced by alternative forms of assessment. Continuous assessment helps learners as feedback. That is feed back to the learners from the teachers tells the students how to improve, and learners see their own progress. Learners start thinking about the quality of their work. Continuous assessment provides students with a constant stream of opportunities to prove their mastery of material and sends the message that everyone can succeed if given enough time and practice. In addition to the above benefits continuous assessment also offer a lot of important when we applied it in the course that we offer. For instance,
a) To find out what students know and can do about the course that we offer
b) To gain confidence in what we say our students know and can do
c) To provide all students with opportunities to show what they know, to promote learning for understanding
d) To help determine what kind of remediation and enrichment activities
Approaches used to address the problems of continuous assessment
When we come to the methods that able to address the problems related to the implementation of continuous in the study area consists of: Developing the concept of active learning method, encouraging the independent learning habit of the students, use media of instructions, time management and giving feedback the learners.
Developing the concept active learning methodology
Active learning methodology may be conceived as a strategy that enhances students’ engagement in a meaningful learning task. It refers to as a process that involves high rate of attention, effort, and mental investment students expend in the work of learning and ensures students’ active involvement with the learning process. It is a method of learning in which students are activity or experimentally involved in the learning process and when there are different levels of active learning depending on student involvement. According to Meyers and Jones active learning “derives from two basic assumptions: that learning is by nature an active endeavor and that different people learn in different ways. Active learning able to minimize the problems which come related to continuous assessment. It offers instructional, classroom seating is arranged to accommodate students individual, and group needs to communicate and work jointly, the teacher monitors and supports students collaboration in positive ways, students are active participants rather than passive recipients and they learn at their own pace and use their own strategies. So, active learning will eradicate the assessment approaches which challenged the teachers in the classroom.
Encouraging independent learning
In independent learning, students take responsibility for their own learning. Independent learners tend to be self-directed and self-reliant. They are aware of their own strengths and weaknesses as learners. They connect the learning within the classroom to the real world and can set their own goals. In the study area the students are mainly relied on clever students who can be able to do the course and an assessment which offered by instructors. For instance, when we offer an assignment in group only few of the students did it and submit for teacher. In this manner it is difficult to evaluate the performance of the students. Dependent students may find it difficult to take responsibility for their own learning. They may lack confidence and need to be given opportunities to develop the skills of an independent learner. One way of looking at independent learning is as a continuum spanning from dependence to independence. In order to address such a problems independent learning enables the learner to make informed choices; take responsibility for one’s own learning activities through planning, support and guidance from teachers represents a shift in responsibility for learning from the teacher to the student, encourages curiosity, passion, inspiration, discernment, self-motivation, self-examination, accountability, critical thinking and persistence.
Use of instruction media and time management
Higher education institutions are increasingly using different types of media (LCD, white board, Internet, DVDs, etc.) to enhance their teaching and improve the learning experience of students. This is likely to increase in the future as technology advances and access to ICT becomes less difficult to teachers and students. Likewise in graduate history and heritage management students using instructional media enable the students to have a good knowledge about their subject matter, increase the technological usage of both the learners and teachers. For instance, having a good internet access would give a vast information and knowledge about the course that we offer in the class. On the other hand, managing our time properly also enables to accomplish our time. if we follow our schedule and listen plan which prepared by the department enable to finish the continuous assessment of the course properly. Preparing precise material and giving feedback for students When we prepare precise materials, the learners did not waste their time and able to finish their work on time. In addition to this giving feedback for students by Ask some probing questions to help the student improve his/her work, be sensitive and think carefully about the language we use, Give soon after the delivery of the session as well as ask some probing questions which related to the class session help the student improve his/her work and accomplish the continues assessment of the teacher properly.
Continuous assessment is systematic in the sense that it involves an operational plan that specifies in an advance the type of assessment to make the frequency of an assessment and assessment instrument to be used. Its comprehensive nature refers to the use of variety of instruments for assessing behavior in the cognitive, effective, and psychomotor domains. Learning is an ongoing (continuous process) and learners learn in different ways and at different paces assessment needs to be responsive to this. We will only get a good picture of the learner’s development if we assess the learning process on an ongoing basis which can be done both informally and formally. Therefore, continuous assessment is the important techniques that help to evaluate the students ’performance in history and heritage management. But according to this study the teachers faced different challenges when they implemented continuous assessment in their courses. They faced like lack of instructional Medias, poor level independent learning, problems associated with corona virus, in availability of sufficient books in the libraries and attending class of the students. This study concluded that in order to minimize the problems of continuous assessment both students and teachers should follow active learning methodology, use instructional media, adopt independent learning approach as well as preparing prices modules and use our time properly.
First of all, I would like to thank the academic Affair coordinators of Bule Hora University which assisted me to have a good understanding about ways of teaching in pedagogical way. Next, I would like to thank our friends who gave information to do this research. In the last but not least, I wanted to acknowledge the 2013 graduate students of History and Heritage Management students for their willingness while I collected information about the problems of continuous assessment implementation.
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