email   Email Us: info@lupinepublishers.com phone   Call Us: +1 (914) 407-6109   57 West 57th Street, 3rd floor, New York - NY 10019, USA

Lupine Publishers Group

Lupine Publishers

ISSN: 2637-4676

Current Investigations in Agriculture and Current Research

Research Article(ISSN: 2637-4676)

Effect of Saline Water on Physicochemical Properties of Soil Used in Plastic Nursery Bags of Three Months Olive Sprouted Cuttings under Tunnel Conditions Volume 1 - Issue 4

Muhammad Arshad Ullah1*, Syeda Sana Aamir1, Bilal Adil2, Hussnain Haider2, Imdad Ali Mahmood1, Badar uz Zaman1 and Syed Ishtiaq Hyder1

  • 1National Agricultural Research Centre, Pakistan
  • 2lnstitute of Soil Sciences, University of Arid Agriculture, Pakistan

Received: March 08,2018;   Published: March 16,2018

Corresponding author: Muhammad Arshad Ullah, National Agricultural Research Centre, Pakistan

DOI: 10.32474/CIACR.2018.01.000116

Abstract PDF

Also view in:

Abstract

The quality of irrigation water has the potential to significantly affect soil structural properties. The study was carried out at NARC Islamabad during August, 2017 to October, 2017 to investigate the effect of saline water on the soil characteristics as well as ionic concentrations in 4 olive varieties i.e. Uslo, Coratina, Carolea and Moraila having 3 months sprouted olive cuttings under different saline water treatments in tunnel. Six levels of saline water were artificially developed (ECw=0,2,4,6,8,10dSm-1). Completely randomized design was applied with three replications. Olive cuttings were irrigated with six saline water three times in a week. Results of this study indicated that soil pH was mentioned no differences with saline water irrigations among three olive varieties. However minute changes in soil pH were noted. Soil ECe was increased as well as the salinity of irrigation water was increased. Soil Na determined increasing trend as the salinity of irrigation water increased. Decreasing trend in soil K was noticed against the increasing of salinity levels by saline irrigation waters. Soil Ca+Mg described the increasing behavior as the salinity of irrigation water increased. Na+ in leaf olive tissues showed increasing behavior as the salinity of irrigation water increased. No difference was observed among three olive varieties. In leaf olive tissues showed increasing trend as the salinity of irrigation water increased. But the increasing trend is very minute as compared to the increase in Na+.

Keywords: Uslo; Coratina; Carolea; Moraila olive varieties; Saline water and soil characteristics and ionic concentration

Introduction

Saline irrigation water contains dissolved substances known as salts. Salinization is one of the most serious types of land degradation as well as and a major obstacle to the optimal utilization of land resources [1]. Approximately 952 million ha are estimated to be salt affected and this area is increasing year after year all over the world [2]. Soil salinity (electrical conductivity: EC>4 dSm-1) is a major abiotic stress which limits plant growth and development, causing yield loss in crop species [3]. Salt- affected soils are identified by excessive levels of water-soluble salts, especially sodium chloride (NaCl) [4]. Salinity is causing decline in soil productivity and crop yield which results in severe degradation. Olive is considered moderately tolerant to salinity [5], although the response of plants to saline stress is a genotypic dependent characteristic [6,7]. However, tolerance to NaCl in olive is mostly related to the salt exclusion mechanism at the root level, which prevents sodium (Na+) accumulation in leaf tissue as well as the ability of the olive to maintain an essential potassium (K+)/ Na+ ratio [6]. Indiscriminate flood irrigation with poor drainage facilities, deep plowing of marginal and naturally saline soils, overexploitation of groundwater, recycling of drainage outflows for irrigation, and mono-cropping of high water consumptive crops are the major factors accelerating secondary soil salinization in Mediterranean regions and in Central Asia [8].

Salinity is a major abiotic stress limiting growth and productivity of plants in many areas of the world due to increasing use of poor quality of water for irrigation and soil salinization. One of the most detrimental effects of salinity stress is the accumulation of Na+ and Cl- ions in tissues of plants exposed to soils with high NaCl concentrations. Entry of both Na+ and Cl- into the cells causes severe ion imbalance and excess uptake might cause significant physiological disorder(s). High Na+ concentration inhibits uptake of K+ ions which is an essential element for growth and development that results into lower productivity and may even lead to death [9]. Secondary salinization is the consequence of a not optimal irrigation water management and of the use of saline water for irrigation. This problem is particularly critical in arid and semi-arid regions where total water availability is limited and good quality water is addressed to high-valued uses, and thus poor quality waters, including wastewaters [10,11]. Salinity stress represents a worldwide increasing environmental problem for crop production [12] . Cracked green "seasoned" Manzanilla is a table olive specialty that is progressively gaining the favor of consumers and increasing its production, which reached 7,000,000kg in 2005/2006 season [13] . Olive trees are mainly grown in semiarid regions with Mediterranean climate, where scarce and irregular rainfall causes low yields. Around the Mediterranean Basin, olive trees have been traditionally cultivated in dry lands. However, the water demand for irrigation is increasing in olive orchards, because of enhanced yields and profits [14].

Material and Methods

The quality of irrigation water has the potential to significantly affect soil structural properties. The study was carried out at NARC Islamabad during August, 2017 to October, 2017 to investigate the effect of saline water on the soil characteristics as well as ionic concentrations in 4 olive varieties i.e. Uslo, Coratina, Carolea and Moraila having 3 months sprouted olive cuttings under different saline water treatments in tunnel. Six levels of saline water were artificially developed (ECw=0,2,4,6,8,10dSm-1). Completely randomized design was applied with three replications. Olive cuttings were irrigated with six saline water three times in a week.

Results and Discussions

Effect of saline water on physicochemical properties of soil

Table 1: Effect of saline water on physicochemical properties of soil.

Lupinepublishers-openaccess-Agriculture


Before Plantation Soil pH=7.61, Soil ECe (dSm-1)=0.194, Soil Na (meql-1)=1.0, Soil K (meql-1)=2.4 Soil Ca+Mg (meql-1)=1.8.

Data regarding soil pH was mentioned in (Table 1) showing no differences with saline water irrigations to three olive varieties. However minute changes in soil pH were noted. Soil ECe mentioned in (Table 1) indicating variations among treatments of using saline water as irrigations but among olive varieties no difference was observed. Soil ECe was increases as well as the salinity of irrigation water was increased. Soil Na data was presented in (Table 1). Soil Na explained the increasing behavior as the salinity of irrigation water increased. No difference was observed among three olive varieties. Soil K was influenced by saline water application in this study (Table 1). Decreasing trend was noticed against the increasing of salinity levels of saline irrigation waters. Soil Ca+Mg described the increasing behavior as the salinity of irrigation water increased. No difference was observed among three olive varieties (Table 1). Saline irrigation water contains dissolved substances known as salts. Salinization is one of the most serious types of land degradation as well as and a major obstacle to the optimal utilization of land resources [1].

Ionic concentration in olive leaf tissues

Na+ in leaf olive tissues showed increasing behavior as the salinity of irrigation water increased. No difference was observed among three olive varieties (Table 2). K+ in leaf olive tissues showed increasing trend as the salinity of irrigation water increased. But the increasing trend is very minute as compared to the increase in Na+. However no difference was noticed among three olive varieties (Table 2). However, tolerance to NaCl in olive is mostly related to the salt exclusion mechanism at the root level, which prevents sodium (Na+) accumulation in leaf tissue as well as the ability of the olive to maintain an essential potassium (K+)/Na+ ratio [6]. One of the most detrimental effects of salinity stress is the accumulation of Na+ and Cl- ions in tissues of plants exposed to soils with high NaCl concentrations. Entry of both Na+ and Cl- into the cells causes severe ion imbalance and excess uptake might cause significant physiological disorder(s). High Na+ concentration inhibits uptake of K+ ions which is an essential element for growth and development that results into lower productivity and may even lead to death [9].

Conclusion

This study concluded that soil pH was showed a minute change. Soil ECe was increased as well as the salinity of irrigation water was increased. Soil Na determined increasing trend as the salinity of irrigation water increased. Decreasing trend in soil K was noticed against the increasing of salinity levels by saline irrigation waters. Soil Ca+Mg described the increasing behavior as the salinity of irrigation water increased. Na+ in leaf olive tissues showed increasing behavior as the salinity of irrigation water increased. No difference was observed among three olive varieties (Table 2). K+ in leaf olive tissues showed increasing trend as the salinity of irrigation water increased. But the increasing trend is very minute as compared to the increase in Na+.

Table 2: Leaf Analysis before the conductance of the experiment and after the harvest of the experiment.

Lupinepublishers-openaccess-Agriculture


T1=ECw=0dSm-1, T =ECw=2dSm1, T =ECw=4dSm-1, T =ECw=6dSm-1, T =ECw=8dSm-1, T =ECw=10dSm-1,

V1=Uslo, V2=Coratina, V3=Carolea, V4=Morailo.

References

  1. Liang Y, Si J, Nikolic M, Peng Y, Chen W (2005) Organic manure stimulates biological activity and barley growth in soil subject to secondary salinization. Soil Biol Biochem 37(6): 1185-1195.
  2. Wang QZ, Wu CH, Xie B, Liu Y, Cui J (2012) Model analysing the antioxidant responses of leaves and roots of switch grass to NaCl-salinity stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 58: 288-296.
  3. Qadir M, Oster JD, Schubert S, Noble AD, Sahrawat KL (2007) Phytoremediation of sodic and saline-sodic soils. Advances in Agronomy 96: 197-247.
  4. Tanji KK (2002) Salinity in the Soil Environment. Salinity Environ - ment-plants-molecules (pp. 21-51). Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, Netherlands.
  5. Demiral MA (2005) Comparative response of two olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars to salinity. Turk J Agr For 29: 267-274.
  6. Chartzoulakis K, Loupassaki M, Bertaki M, Androulakis I (2002) Effects of NaCl salinity on growth, ion content and CO2 assimilation rate of six olive cultivars. Sci Hort 96(1-4): 235-247.
  7. Weissbein S, Z Wiesman, Y Ephrath, M Silberbush (2008) Vegetative and reproductive response of olivecultivars to moderate saline water irrigation. HortScience 43: 320-327.
  8. ushimov B, Ganiev IM, Rustamova I, Haitov B, Islam KR (2007) Land degradation by agricultural activities in Central Asia. In R Lal, M Sulai- monov, BA Stewart, D Hansen, P Doraiswamy (Eds.), Climate change and terrestrial C sequestration in Central Asia. Taylor and Francis, New York, USA, pp.194-212.
  9. James R, Blake A, Byrt CS, Munns R (2011) Major genes for Na+ exclusion, Naxl and Nax2 (wheatHKT1;4 and HKT1;5), decrease Na+ accumulation in bread wheat leaves under saline and waterlogged conditions. Journal of Experimental Botany 62(8): 2939-294.
  10. Minhas PS, Dubey SK, Sharma DR (2007) Comparative affects of blending, intera/inter-seasonal cyclic uses of alkali and good quality waters on soil properties and yields of paddy and wheat. Agric Water Manage 87(1): 83-90.
  11. UNESCO (2003) World Water Development Report. Water for People, Water for Life. UNESCO Publishing, Barghahn Books.
  12. FAO (2005) Promoting coherence and coordination on land and water.
  13. Arroyo Lopez FN, Bautista Gallego J, Duran Quintana MC, Garrido Fernandez A (2006) LWT-Food Sci Technol. 41: 551-560.
  14. Orgaz F, Fernandez, Bonachela S, Gallardo M, Fereres E (2005) Agric Water Manage 72: 81-96.
Close

Online Submission System

Drag and drop files here

or

Browse Files
( For multiple files submission, zip them in a single file to submit. For file zipping software Download )