Written by Mohamad Fadzil Haji Yahya, this book is compiled
from lecture notes given by the author to a veterinary medical
student while attending a Veterinary Parasitology course. This note
is part of a veterinary entomology note taught to students. This
book does not contain a comprehensive description of all Diptera
in Malaysia; Diptera described in this book is considered to be
essential in terms of veterinary and is available in Malaysia. Most of
the contents of this book are references from textbooks, magazines,
papers, charts and so forth obtained by the author, and are mirrored
by the study and observations carried out by the author themselves.
Referrals made are listed in the reference list. It is hoped that this
book will be useful for undergraduate and diploma students in the
field of Veterinary Medicine or other students and researchers who
are interested in the field of veterinary entomology. The absence
of comprehensive information, especially in Bahasa Malaysia, with
respect to this title has led authors to collect information into this
booklet. The writing of this book aims to provide basic knowledge
of veterinary flies, creams and mosquitoes in Malaysia.
The photographs and diagrams contained in this book are
not intended for the purpose of making detailed diagnoses of one
species but are simply a guide for practical identification to the
genus level. Determination of species requires specialist services.
Diptera is a group of people. Because these groups are not bony to
support muscle and muscle attachment, their skin is thickened and
hardened with chitin, a complex chemical, mostly from proteins.
This hard and thick skin forms an outer frame. On the surface of the
skin there are various scales, coarse fur and fine hair. An organ can
be divided into three segments, namely head, thorax and abdomen.
Each segment is considered to contain dorsal, ventral and lateral
parts, each of which is called distorted, sternite and pleura. Diptera
is a veterinarian in Malaysia including flies, tears and mosquitoes.
These creatures are always disturbing livestock and cause
stimulation due to their bites. The disorder may cause sensitization
and miasis with secondary complications. These are also biological
and mechanical vectors of animal disease pathogenic agents such
as viruses, bacteria, protozoa, helmints and ricetsia, which cause
disease and death to livestock, thus losing the financial resources
for breeders. Diptera can be grouped into four subordons, namely
Nematocera, Brachycera, Cyclorrhapha and Pupipara. Nematocera
is composed of hwan which has a primitive shape. Cyclorrhapha
contains a fairly specialized bead and Brachycera is an intermediary
suborder that is located between these two groups. Pupipara
should be included in the Cyclorrhapha suborder but due to certain
features then pupils will be separated into separate suborders.
Every activity involving veterinary needs requires the ability to
collect and retrieve it. Many sampling techniques and collections
can be used. The collection is important for identifying the genus
or species involved as a vector in the transfer of a disease agent.
By this way the escort can be arranged based on the biological
knowledge of the species involved. The method chosen for this
Diptera collection depends on species and objectives. Number
of Diptera is determined by two important factors, abiotic factor
and biosis factor. Abiotic factors are environmental factors such as
temperature, breeding grounds and air humidity. Biosis factors are
true enemies including parasites, predators and pathogens. The
climate of a place is a major factor that generally determines the
potential of breeding Diptera populations. However, the situation in
the home can change this environment. The true enemies of Diptera
play an important role that can set Diptera population naturally.
Temperatures in an area affect Diptera’s development velocity and
the number of generations to be gained annually.