Riesma Andiani*, Sunarru Samsi Hariadi and Suyoto Hadi Suparmono
Received: May 20, 2019; Published: May 30, 2019
Corresponding author: Riesma Andiani, Senior Lecturer at Extension and Communication Development Study Program, Indonesia
Tourism village is a tourist alternative that is now chosen mainly by city people. Quiet rural atmosphere considered to be a strong attraction because it cannot be found in urban areas. One component that forms a thick rural atmosphere is the condition of natural resources which is dominated by paddy fields. In order to optimize the quality of the village as a tourist destination, there is a concept of developing an ideal tourist village, namely community based tourism (CBT). CBT is a tourism development concept that combines the presence of tourism potential which is supported by community participation in driving tourism activities in it. This study aimed to look at how tourism village development in Bantul Regency can be optimized through the indicators of CBT concept implementation. Path analysis adopted to elaborate the supporting factors that directly or indirectly improve the implementation of CBT concept. The study drew a conclusion that natural resources, group role, and community participation are directly improves CBT concept implementation while government’s role indirectly affected CBT concept implementation.
Keywords: Agriculture tourism village; Community based tourism; Natural resources
The tourism sector is currently one of the leading sectors that continues to show progress and increase contribution to the national economy. Contributions from the tourism sector to foreign exchange in 2017 reached more than 205 trillion rupiah . Seeing this opportunity, the tourism ministry is trying to continue to explore tourism potentials so that it can be optimized. One of the main focus of the Ministry of Tourism in developing the performance of the tourism sector can be reached through the development of tourism villages as a tourism business based on natural potential involving the community as the executor. The development of tourism villages has broad benefits both in the economics, social, environmental and others. Economically, developing tourism villages are able to improve the national, regional, and local economies, in the social field, it is able to increase employment and business fields for the people in the village. In socio-cultural aspect, tourism village development can explore and develop art and local culture that are almost extinct to be preserved again. The development of tourism village is also a form of environment-oriented industry because it is considered capable of arousing public awareness of the importance of maintaining and preserving the environment for human life now and in the future.
Muliawan  mentions the criteria and supporting factors of tourism villages. First, it has unique potential that can be developed as an attraction for tourist visits (natural and cultural tourism sources). The potential of objects and tourist attraction is the basic capital for the development of a rural area into a tourist village. Second, having adequate local human resources support. Third, there is a strong spirit and motivation from the local community. Fourth, the allocation of land or area that allows for the development of rural tourism supporting facilities such as accommodation, public service areas, art areas and so on. Based on the description above, an outline can be summarized that the potential of tourism village resources has two aspects, namely natural potential and socio-cultural potential.
As a region that has a concern in keeping the existence of agricultural land, Bantul Regency has developed many tourism villages based on agricultural activities where natural resources is a highlight in tourism activities. Natural resources drives a village to be a tourism village attraction based on the location of the region, such as agriculture, plantations, mountains or rivers. Community involvement in promoting tourism is the basis of the formation of the concept of community based tourism (CBT). Community based tourism is a concept of tourism development that provides full opportunities for local communities to control and engage in all activities so as to create sustainable tourism development. Through this concept, it is expected that tourism development carried out based on aspirations, carried out with full involvement of the community and provides the main benefits to the welfare of the community . According to UNEP , the development of a tourism village area can be said to fulfill the CBT concept if it has fulfilled several basic principles, including:
a. There is recognition, support, and development of community ownership in the tourism industry
b. The participation of community members in starting every aspect
c. The improvement of community pride
d. The improvement of the quality of life of the community
e. There is a guarantee of environmental sustainability
f. There is a defense against the uniqueness of character and culture in the local area
g. The improvement of learning about cultural exchange in the community
h. There is an appreciation of cultural differences and human dignity
i. There is a fair distribution of benefits to community members
j. The determination of the percentage of income (distribution of income) in projects in the community. To achieve an optimal tourism village development and in accordance with the principles of implementing the CBT concept, not only natural resources become an important component. The support and participation of the community to drive tourism in their village is also important. In addition, stakeholder is needed to support and increase people’s motivation to participate through the role of the government and the role of tourism management groups.
This research is a descriptive analytic study. Descriptive research is research that aims to provide a detailed and accurate picture using data in the form of words or numbers to explain a series of stages or steps and mechanisms of causation . While according to Kuntjoyo , analytic research is a study that analyzes the relationships between research variables, not only describing these variables.The study was conducted in Bantul Regency in two tourism villages as samples, Puton Tourism Village and Kebonagung Tourism Village. Bantul Regency was chosen as one of the districts with the largest number of agricultural tourism villages in DI Yogyakarta Province. Besides, Bantul Regency has a special policy that is concerned about the existence of agricultural land. The policy made by the Bantul Regency government made the development of industries, include tourism, not to shift the existence of the agricultural sector.
The sample in this study is a tourism village’s local people who involved in the development of tourism villages. The sampling technique of this study used a simple random sampling technique. Data was collected through interviews with the guideline of structured questionnaire. The interview data is changed to an interval scale, the Likert scale. Then test the validity and reliability of the data before path analysis. Path analysis is carried out to determine the effect of both direct and indirect between the independent variables on the dependent variable so that it can be a reference for the policy maker in formulating policies that can be applied. Path analysis was carried out using SPSS 21 and AMOS 24 software.
Both the Kebonagung Tourism Village and Puton Tourism Village are agricultural tourism villages. The main attractions of these two tourist villages are the traditional rural atmosphere. Management of agricultural land as the main natural resource becomes an important thing in tourism activities in agricultural tourism villages. The measurement of natural conditions measured by people’s perceptions of the natural environment in their villages in terms of the accessiblity to tourism villages, natural beauty in tourist villages, village environment, the availability of supporting facilities to support tourism activities related to nature, visitor security, cleanliness of tourism villages, and air quality.
In the development of tourist villages that adopt the CBT concept, community participation is needed as a driver of tourism activities. Adiyoso in Dewi et al. , explained that the participation of local communities in efforts to empower and grow independence is the most important component. Therefore, even in the development of tourism villages, the element of participation is the main support for success. Community participation is important because the community is the party that drives all activities in the tourist village. It can be said that the community is the owner of resources and culture in the area, so the success of tourism development depends on the acceptance and support of the community.With the participation of local people as owners of all tourism components in their regions, it is hoped that sustainable development can be created. In this study community participation is seen based on its form which divided into two forms: material (money and goods) or non-material (energy and ideas).
To be able to carry out good tourism activities, it is necessary to have a tourist village management group. Previous research conducted by Manggala & Mustam , stated that the strengthening of the role of tourism groups was effective in increasing the activeness of the community to join in advancing every activity and superior product in their village.Both the Kebonagung Tourism Village and Puton Tourism Village have a tourism management group commonly referred to as Pokdarwis (tourism concerned group). Pokdarwis becomes the core of community mobilization in carrying out tourism village development activities. The role of Pokdarwis due to the operational duties of tourism villages, is also a component in the community environment which assure the community from participating in the development of tourism villages. The role of Pokdarwis towards tourism village communities can influence the activity of the community in the process of developing tourism villages. The role of groups in these communities, in this study, will be reviewed through the functions of the tourism management group as communicators, facilitators, organizers, and motivators.
In addition to the presence of tourism executor from internal tourism villages, of course other parties are needed to assist and facilitate community needs in developing tourism villages. In this case, the function is represented by the role of the agency in providing information to the community.Based on an empirical study done by Panjaitan , counseling provided by the government significantly increases community participation in managing the environment.This is because, the majority of villagers initially work only as farmers so that the ultimate goal of them is to run their farm in order to obtain high productivity only. However, with the existence of tourist villages in the neighborhood, people need to know agricultural management as a component of tourist attractions. So that community agricultural activities have a dual function, namely as farming and as tourism.
To see how the influence of natural resources, community participation, the role of groups and the role of government both directly and indirectly, path analysis is carried out on the relationships between these variables. The results of path analysis using AMOS 24 software are as follows Figure 1. The figure shows that natural resources, community participation and the role of groups directly influence the development of CBT-based agricultural tourism villages. Whereas the role of government influences indirectly through natural resource variables of community participation and the role of groups as intervenning variables.
Figure 1: Path Analysis Model of Variables that Directly and Indirectly Influence the Implementation of CBT Concept in Agricultural Tourism Village Development.
Numbers showed on the arrow line between variables are path coefficients, that is the value shows the magnitude of the influence between the independent variables on the dependent variable. The greater the value of the path coefficient, the greater the influence. Based on path analysis results, it is known that to improve the development of agricultural tourism villages based on the CBT concept, it can be done through four paths, they are
a) Government’s role → Natural resources → CBT ImplementationTo optimize the development of CBT-based tourism villages, the role of the government is needed to provide education related to natural resource management, which in this case in particular is the management of rice fields as a component of tourism. Good management of natural resources affects the optimization of the implementation of CBT in the development of agricultural tourism villages. Based on the results of calculations through AMOS software, the total effects of this line are 0.011.
b) Government’s role → Community participation → CBT ImplementationThis pathway illustrates the development of agricultural tourism villages based on the CBT concept is supported by high community participation in tourism activities. High community participation is supported by the government’s role in providing counseling and assistance. The assistance and motivation provided by the government to the community can increase the community’s sense of belonging towards the tourism village. The total effect of this pathway based on the results of the calculation is 0.321.
c) Government’s role → Group Role → CBT implementation In this pathway, the implementation of CBT in the development of tourism villages is supported by the government’s role in providing information to tourism concerned groups (Pokdarwis). Through the outreach and assistance provided by the government, Pokdarwis has good skills and abilities to organize tourism village development activities well and in accordance with the CBT concept. Calculations based on the results of path analysis show that the total effect on this pathway is 0.111.
d) Government’s role → Group Role → Community participation → CBT implementation
The last path that can be used as a strategy in improving the implementation of CBT in the development of agricultural tourism villages is through the role of the agency in providing information and assisting Pokdarwis so that Pokdarwis’ skills in tourism management improved. By being equipped with good skills, Pokdarwis is able to become an example for the community regarding the benefits gained through activities in tourist villages, so that it will increase community participation in activities to develop agricultural tourism villages. The higher the community participation, the better the development of tourism villages which in this case is measured based on the CBT concept. Calculations based on path analysis results show that the total effect on this pathway is 0.070.
Based on a description of several strategies that can be done to optimize the development of agricultural tourism villages based on CBT, second path (Government’s role → Community participation → CBT Implementation) is the most effective strategy to be applied. This pathway is chosen based on the magnitude of the regression coefficient which affects the total value of the effect, so that this path has the greatest total effect value.
The role of government should be improved since it has a great influence on increasing community participation so that the concept of CBT can be implemented properly in the development of tourism villages. Increasing the role of the government can be done by providing counseling and training that is specific and relevant with community needs where there is community involvement since the extension planning stage. In addition, assistance is also needed for all community members to be actively involved in tourism development so that the level of community participation increases. The higher community participation will improve the implementation of CBT in tourism development. This is in accordance with the main principle in CBT, namely community participation as the primary aspect in tourism development.
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