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ISSN: 2637-4676

Current Investigations in Agriculture and Current Research

Mini Review(ISSN: 2637-4676)

Allelopathic Potentiality of Celosia argentea L Review Volume 1 - Issue 2

Yuvraj D Kengar*

  • Department of Botany, India

Received: February 09,2018;   Published: February 16,2018

Corresponding author: Yuvraj D Kengar, Department of Botany, Smt Kusumtai Rajarambapu Patil Kanya Mahavidyalaya, India

DOI: 10.32474/CIACR.2018.01.000107

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Abstract

Weeds are a mostly unwanted unplanted redundant plant that grows in crop fields and interfere the crop sociability, cause damage to natural resources and loss in yield. Although, they are an integral component with crop and enjoy lucrative business expressing that a natural phenomenon of one plant releases substance which affect the growth of other plant sharing the same habitat called allelopathy and chemical substance known as allele chemicals. These allele chemicals have ability to disturb metabolic functions including photosynthesis, respiration, mineral nutrition and such others through Allelopathic mechanism. They often affect germination and growth dynamics of crop plants. Allelopathy signifies either negatively or positively, resulting in inhibitory or stimulatory potential on neighboring plants. The weed, Celosia argentea L is predominately interfere in crop fields of cereals and legumes therefore, plant parts such as leaves, roots and inflorescence are showing their Allelopathic effects on seed germinations physiology and metabolisms of various crop plants. In this connection, the Allelopathic effect of C argentea is not studied extensively by workers; very few records are available so attempt has made to compile the Allelopathic influence of C argentea on various crop plants in this review.

Keywords: Allelopathy; Allelochemicals; Celosia argentea L

Introduction

Weeds are a mostly belligerent redundant plant that grows in superfluous places, upheaval the crop sociability and cause wastage of natural resources and loss in yield. Although, they were grown as an integral component with crop and enjoy lucrative business which crop receive and simultaneously release some chemical compounds. These compounds interfere with crop metabolism thereby reducing crop yield, change their sociability through embracing local weed races and become dominant. This phenomenon was termed as Allelopathy by Molisch [1], meaning "mutual harm", expressing that a natural phenomenon of one plant releases inhibitory substance which inhibits the growth of other plant sharing the same habitat. Majority of weeds hamper the growth of main crop through escaping chemical substances, that present almost in all parts of plant [2] called as allele chemicals [3]. They often affect germination dynamics and growth of crop [4]. These allele chemicals have ability to slow down vital metabolic functions like photosynthesis, respiration, seed germinations and mineral nutrition [5] through Allelopathic mechanism [6]. Allelopathy signifies the interaction between the plants either negatively or positively, resulting either inhibitory or stimulatory potential on neighboring plants. The weed, Celosia argentea L is an exotic flowering herb belonging to Amaranthaceae predominately interfere in crop field of cereals and legumes [7]. Therefore, plant parts of C. argentea such as leaves, roots and inflorescence showing their Allelopathic effects on seed germinations physiology and metabolisms of various crop plants [8] were studied by many researchers. The review on Allelopathic potentiality of C. argentea has not done earlier so attempt has made to compile literatures on the Allelopathic influence of C. argentea on various crop plants performed by various workers. The details are described here with in this review article.

Morphology

C. argentea L (family Amaranthaceae) is an erect annual herb having 1- 3 feet height (Figure 1). The stem is erect, simple or ascending, ridged, glabrous and branches grooved. The leaves are linear or linear lance late, alternate, simple, glabrous and innately veined, short petiole or sessile and without stipules. Inflorescence is slivery to pink in ornamental forms completely or partly sterile. Flowers are at earlier pinkish later on white, crowded, small, bisexual, regular five merous, tepal free, narrowly elliptical-oblong, 6-10mm long, stamen fused at base, ovary superior, 1- celled, style filiform up to 7mm long, stigma 2- 3,very short. Fruit is an ovoid to globose capsule 3-4mm long, seeds 4-8 subreniform, compressed.

Figure 1: Celosia argentea L. Plant.

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Classifications

    i. Kingdom: Plantae

    ii. Subkingdom: Tracheobionta

    iii. Super division: Spermatophyta

    iv. Class: Magnoliopsida

    v. Subclass: Caryophyllidae

    vi. Order: Caryophyllales

    vii. Family: Amaranthaceae

    viii. Genus: Celosia

    ix. Species: argentea L.

Allelopathic Effect of Celosia argentea L. on Various Crops Plants

Following are some reviews explained the effect of C. argentea on various crop plants. Pandya [9] demonstrated inhibition in shoot and root growth of bajra after treatment of aqueous extracts of fresh leaves, stems and roots of C. argentea. He found that root and leaf extracts were inhibitory than stem extracts. After this experiment, Ashraf & Sen [10] evaluated the Allelopathic effect of same weed against bajra. Similarly, Celosia argentea exerts Allelopathic influence on seed germination and seedling growth of Jowar [11]. Soni & Mohnot [12] investigated the effect of aqueous extract of C. argentea leaves on chlorophyll and carotenoid synthesis in seedlings of Sorghum vulgare. It was indicated that below the lowest concentration of 0.05% of the extract showed stimulation in synthesis of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids, however inhibition was noticed at greater concentration. It is evident that the Allelopathic complex associated with the leaves of C. argentea is quite potent in inhibiting the synthesis of chlorophyll pigments.

Inamdar & Kamble [7] reported herbicides potentiality in C. argentea and examine the Allelopathic effects of C. argentea on seed germination and seedling growth of Vigna mungo. They recorded that the highest concentration of root, inflorescence and leaf extract significantly inhibited the seed germination in Vigna mungo. The maximum delay in seed germination was observed by root and leaf extract. The extracts of leaf, inflorescence and root of C. argentea caused adverse effects on the seedling growth of Vigna mungo, the decrease in root and shoot length was observed with increase in concentrations of root, inflorescence and leaf extracts. The detrimental influences were caused more by leaf extract treatments as compared to root and inflorescence extract treatment. The fresh and dry weights also decreased at higher concentration of root inflorescence and leaf extracts over control.

Saswade & Dhumal [13], had underwent investigation to find out the Allelopathic effects of the weeds, C. argentea on germination and early seedling growth of crop plants mungbean (Vigna radiata), chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and sorghum (Sorghum bocolar). The aqueous leaf extracts was tested against the seed germination and seedling growth of selected crops. They recorded the stimulation at low concentrations (1:4%) treatment, but higher concentrations (1:1%) were most inhibitory to test crops. The higher concentrations of extracts were co-related to both seed germination and seedling growth.

Saritha & Sreeramulu [14] conducted experiments to investigate the Allelopathic effects of different concentrations of C. argentea weed on seed germination and seedling growth of Sorghum bicolor, Phaseolous aureus, Arachis hypogaea, Dolichos lab and Vigna unguiculata. They noticed decreased the percentage seed germination and seedling growth of crop plant with concentration of leaf extracts. They concluded that the reduction of germination percentage may be due to the presence of allele chemicals contain hyaluronic acid, celosianin, betanin and isocelosianin.

Saritha [15] studied sociability of C. argentea to understand Allelopathic influence on surrounding crop plant seed germination & on microorganisms.

Shagufta et al. [16] were identified 12 compounds through HPLC as 4-hydroxycinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, m-coumaric acid, gallic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, m-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, pyrogallol, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and genetic acid. The mass confirmation of identified compounds was achieved by LC-MS. Similarly, the physiochemical analysis of C. argentea aqueous extract showed the presence of various constituents such as phenols, flavonoids, tannins, and glycosides. They have proved as C. argentea may effective as a substitute of herbicides to control the weeds like Lepidium sativum and to protect the environment from the health hazard effects of herbicides.

Patil & Khade [17], tested photosynthetic pigments of Vigna aconitifolia L and Trigonella foenum graecum L. after treatment of Celosia argentea L. leaf extract. This study indicated that the higher concentration of leaf extract of Celosia argentea L. i.e. 20% was more inhibitory than control. An increased concentration of extract decreased the photosynthetic pigments in Vigna aconitifolia L. and Trigonella foenum graecum L. The C. argentea L. shows Allelopathic effect on photosynthetic pigment.

Patil & Khade [18] have scrutinized for Allelopathic potentiality C. argentea against carbohydrate content of guar. They reported that the 5% inflorescence and root leachates of C. argentea showed slightly increased total sugar in guar. All other treatments ranging from 20 to 80% aqueous leachates of inflorescence and root act detrimentally. The all treatments of aqueous leachates caused detrimental effect on carbohydrate contents indicated that allele chemicals are present in plant parts of C. argentea. The same authors [19] were also found positive correlation between the aqueous leachate and activity of alpha amylase. The activity of amylase was increased in germinating seeds of guar after treatment of aqueous leachates of all plant parts. The activity of alpha-amylase was more pronounced in leaf leachate treated seedlings as compared to other leachate treatments. It indicated that allele chemicals are more in leaf than other plant parts.

Kengar & Patil [8], scrutinized Allelopathic potentiality against lentil (Lens culanaris Medic.). They reported positively correlation between the aqueous leachate and activity of a-amylase. The activity of enzyme amylase was increased in germinating seeds of lentil after treatment of aqueous leachates of C. argentea L. plant parts. The treatment of 40 to 80% aqueous leachate of inflorescence, leaf and root were recorded doubled a-amylase activity as compared to control in germinating seeds. The activity of a-amylase was more pronounced in leaf leachate treated seedlings as compared to other leachate treatments.

Conclusion

Many agriculture researchers have agreed that Allelopathic potentials are present in the weed plant, C. argentea L. Many researchers have depicted its influence on metabolism of various crop plants. The impact of this review will highly positive and it will make possible to analyze Allelopathic potentiality of C. argentea L against different crops from field. This study opens new area for further quantifications of allele chemicals their within and other weeds also.

References

  1. Molisch H (1937) Der Einfluss einer pflane auf die andere Allelopathie. Fischer, Jena, Germany.
  2. Singh HP, Batish DR, Kaur S, Kohli RK (2003) Phytotoxic interference of Ageratum conyzoides with (Triticum aestivum). J Agro Crop Sci 189(5): 341-346.
  3. Batish DR, Lavanya K, Singh HP, Koohli RK (2007) Phenolic allelochemicals released by Chenopodium murale affect the growth, nodulation and macromolecule content in checkpea and pea. Plant Growth Regulation 51(2): 119-128.
  4. Kadioglue L, Yamhar Y, Asav U (2005) Allelopathic effects of weeds extracts against seed germination of some plants. J of Env Biol 26(2): 169-173.
  5. Saxena S, Sharma K, Kumar S, Sand NK, Rao PB (2004) Interference of three weed extracts on uptake of nutrient in three different varieties of paddy through radio tracer techniques. J Environ Biol 25(4): 387-393.
  6. Benyas E, Hassanpouraghdam MB, Salmasi SZ, Oskooei OSK (2010) Allelopathic effects of Xanthium strumarium L. shoot aqueous extract on germination, seedling growth and chlorophyll content of lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.). Rom Bio tech Lett 15(3): 5223-5228.
  7. Inamdar Archana, Kamble AB (2009) Allelopathic Effects of the plant Celosia argentea L. on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Vigna mungo L. Nature Environment and Pollution Technology 8(1): 59-62.
  8. Kengar YD, Patil BJ (2018) Allelopathic Influence of Celosia argentea L. Against a-Amylase Activity in Lens culanaris Medic. During Seed Germination IJSART 4 (1): 420-423.
  9. Pandya SM (1975) Effect of Celosia argentea extracts on Roots and Shoots Growth of Bajra Seedlings. Geobio 2: 175-178.
  10. Ashraf N, Sen DN (1978) Allelopathic Potential of Celosia argentea L. in Arid Land Crop Fields. Oecol Plant 13(4): 331-338.
  11. Mohnot K, S Soni (1977) Ecophysiological studies on desert plants II Growth retarding factor in air-dried stem of Solanum surrattense Burm F. Comparative Physiology and Ecology 2: 97-100.
  12. Soni SR, Mohnot K (1988) Chlorophyll synthesis in jowar seedlings as affected by allelopathic complex of leaves of Celosia argentea. Camp Physiol Ecol 13: 154.
  13. Saswade RR, Dhumal KN (2012) Allelopathic effects of Celosia argentea and Euphorbia hirtaleaf extracts on germination and seedling growth of mungbean (Vigna radiata), chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolar). Advances in Plant Sciences 25(1): 197-201.
  14. Saritha P, Sreeramulu A (2013) Allelopathic effects of Celosia argentea L. leaf extracts on crop plant seed germination. Int J Life Sc Bt & Pharm Res 2(1): 56-64.
  15. Saritha P (2014) Studies on ecology OF C. argentea L. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science & Research 4(1): 60-62.
  16. Shagufta P, Muhammad Y, Ameer FZ, Nasir R and Abdul J (2015) Extraction, isolation, and identification of various environment friendly components from cock's comb (Celosia argentea) leaves for allelopathic potential. J Toxic & environ Chem 96(10): 1-13.
  17. Patil BJ, Khade HN (2017) Allelopathic Effect of Celosia argentea L. extract on Photosynthetic Pigments of Vigna aconitifolia L. and Trigonella foenum graecum L. Bioscience Discovery 8(4): 837-840.
  18. Patil DT, Khade SK (2018) Allelopathic Potentiality of Celosia argentea L. on Carbohydrates Content during Seed Germination of Guar. International Journal of Recent Trends in Eng& Res (IJRTER) 4(1): 1318.
  19. Patil DT, Khade Sk (2018) Allelopathic influence of Celosia argentea L. on activity of α- amylase during seed germination of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (l). Taub IJCRT 6 (1): 480-486.
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