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ISSN: 2637-4676

Current Investigations in Agriculture and Current Research

Research Article(ISSN: 2637-4676)

Pesticide Residues in Conventionally and Organically Managed Apiaries in South and North Florida

Volume 7 - Issue 3

Lambert HB Kanga1*, Shalom C Siebert1, Mehboob Sheikh1 and Jesusa Crisostomo Legaspi2

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    • 1Center for Biological Control, Florida A&M University, College of Agriculture and Food Sciences, USA
    • 2United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service – Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, USA

    *Corresponding author: Lambert HB Kanga, Center for Biological Control, Florida A&M University, College of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 310 Perry Paige Building South, Tallahassee, FL 32307, USA

Received: July 15, 2019;   Published: August 07, 2019

DOI: 10.32474/CIACR.2019.07.000262

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Background: Honeybees are of economic importance not only for honey production but also for crop pollination. Nationwide, the value of the increased crop yield and quality achieved by honeybees is estimated at $14.6 billion. Thus, bee health is critical for the success of pollination-based agriculture, which produces about a third of our diet in the United States (US). Unfortunately, the number of honeybee colonies in the US has declined by more than 40% in the last few years. A combination of causal factors, including exposure to pesticides, parasites, and beekeeping practices are believed to be the culprit for the increased colony mortality. In this study, we compared pesticide residues under two different beekeeping management practices (conventionally and organically-managed apiaries).

Results: We found no pesticide residues in adult bee samples collected from organically managed hives; whereas, trace amounts of the fungicide chlorothalonil and the pyrethroid insecticide fluvalinate were found in adult bees collected from conventionally managed hives. Unlike honey harvested from organically managed hives, a concentration of 12.45 ppb of the formamidine amitraz was found in honey harvested from conventionally managed hives. Residues of several pesticides were found in wax from both conventionally and organically managed apiaries; except for coumaphos at 225.3 ppb, levels were generally lower in organically managed hives and the highest concentration of insecticide detected in wax from conventionally managed hives was fluvalinate at 251.5 ppb. Two pyrethroid insecticides (fluvalinate and bifenthrin) were found in pollen samples collected from organically managed hives; in contrast, several classes of pesticides were detected in pollen samples from conventionally managed hives where the highest residue level was that of the fungicide pyraclostrobin at 100 ppb.

Conclusion: In general, pesticide residues were higher in conventionally managed apiaries than in organically managed ones. There were more chemical residues in the pollen samples from conventionally managed apiaries than organically managed ones. Farmers and beekeepers should work together to promote honeybee health.

Abstract| Introduction| Materials and Methods| Statistical Analysis| Field Results and Discussion| Results and Discussion| Mode of Action| Conclusion| Acknowledgment| References|