Ana Moreira1*, André Correia2, Juliana Couto2, Rita Megué2, Raquel Fontes2 and Inês Fernandes2
Received:June 19, 2022; Published:August 1, 2022
Corresponding author: Ana Moreira, ISPA-Instituto Universitário e Instituto Superior Manuel Teixeira Gomes Portugal
This study aimed to study the effect of work-family conflict (WFC) and Family-work Conflict (FWC) on turnover intentions and whether this relationship is mediated by well-being. To this end it was hypothesized that: (1) WFC and FWC have a positive and significant effect on organizational turnover intentions; (2) WFC and FWC have a negative and significant effect on well-being; (3) well-being has a mediating effect on the relationship between WFC and FWC and turnover intentions. The sample of this study is composed of 313 participants working in organisations based in Portugal. The effect of WFC on turnover intentions and on wellbeing were confirmed. A partial mediating effect of well-being on the relationship between WFC and turnover intentions was also found.
Keywords: Conflict (work-family and family-work); Well-being and Turnover Intentions
When we talk about WFC we have to look at this theme with some attention since it is a fact that is related to the difficulty of reconciling work and parenting obligations. Super  mentioned that individuals perform various different roles throughout their lives, with professional and family roles being extremely important. In this sense, this topic has aroused a great interest, derived from the changes experienced in society and in the workplace . Increasingly, both members of the family are working, which puts into question the demands of their professional and family roles, requiring a greater capacity to adapt . Other factors relate to the fact that men have a more active participation in family life and also to the growth of single-parent families, social contexts which have raised interest in the relationship between work and family variables [2,4].
Branham , points out several factors that can make an employee leave an organization, such as not integrating into the work environment and functions, the lack of feedback and follow-up from managers, feeling limitations to their work, or even the fact that they don’t see their effort recognized. In a study about nurses in which WFC was addressed, it was realized that work interferes with family life and may come to have a significant effect on individuals’ performance and turnover intentions, as well as health and well-being . This reasoning leads to the formulation of Hypothesis 1.
a) Hypothesis 1: WFC and FWC have a positive and significant effect on turnover intentions. Organizational well-being is a concept on which there is still no consensus in the literature, but it is highly influenced with positive factors such as job satisfaction, as well as negative factors such as burnout . It can be seen as a multidimensional psychological concept, intertwined with the association of positive affect with work and the organization. This concept is defined by three elements, namely job satisfaction, work engagement, and affective organizational commitment. WFC is considered a type of interprofessional conflict, which occurs when individuals find themselves managing multiple requirements and roles from both their work and family life. This multiple management is found to have negative implications on individual well-being . Thus, hypothesis 2 was formulated.
b) Hypothesis 2: FWC and WFC have a negative and significant effect on well-being. Improving employee well-being, in turn, decreases turnover intentions . This reasoning leads us that well-being is the mechanism that explains the relationship between WFC and FWC and turnover intentions. Hypothesis 3 was formulated.
c) Hypothesis 3: Well-being has a mediating effect on the relationship between WFC and FWC and turnover intentions. In order to integrate the various hypotheses formulated, the following theoretical model was developed.
A total of 313 participants collaborated in this study on a voluntary way. The sampling process was non-probability, convenience and intentional snowball sampling . The questionnaire that was placed online on the Google Forms platform contained information about the purpose of the study. It was also expressed that the confidentiality of the answers would be guaranteed. The questionnaire included five questions to characterize the sample (gender, academic qualifications, family status, seniority and type of contract) and three scales (turnover intentions, well-being and conflict). Data were collected between April 2022 and May 2022 (Table 1).
All participants worked in organizations based in Portugal. They were mostly female (67.7%), aged between 18 and 69 (M = 38.52; SD=12.44). As for academic qualifications, 50.8% had up to the 12th grade, 32.6% had a degree, 16.6% a master’s degree or higher (16.6%). Their marital statuses were single (39%), married/ cohabiting (53.7%), divorced (6.7%), and widowed (.6%). The average of their seniority in the organization was 18.10 years (SD=12.53), with an employment contract: indefinite term (18.5%), fixed term (33.9%) and permanent (47.6%) (Table 2).
The first analysis was to test the internal consistency of each scale by calculating Cronbach’s alpha. As for the study of sensitivity, the different measures of central tendency, dispersion and distribution were calculated for the different items of the scales used. The hypotheses formulated in this study were tested through multiple linear regressions. To test the mediation effect, we followed Baron and Kenny’s conditions .
To measure the WFC and FWC we used the instrument developed by Netemeyer, et al. , translated and adapted to the Portuguese population by Santos and Gonçalves . This instrument is composed of 10 items classified in a 7-point rating scale (from 1 “I strongly disagree” to 5 “I strongly agree”) and assesses the bidirectional component of the conflict (work-family and family-work). As for internal consistency, a Cronbach’s alpha of .87 was obtained for work-family conflict and .84 for family-work conflict.
As for turnover intentions, they were measured through the 3 items that make up the instrument developed by Bozeman & Perrewé , rated on a 5-point rating scale (from 1 “Strongly Disagree” to 5 “Strongly Agree”). It presents a good internal consistency, with a Cronbach’s alpha of .92. The PERMA Profiler scale, developed by Butler and Kern  and adapted to the Portuguese population by Alves, et al.  used as a Well-Being measurement instrument, consists of 23 items. Participants are asked to respond using an 11-point Likert scale. However, well-being is measured by 16 of these items, showing good internal consistency, with a Cronbach’s alpha of .93. Neither the instruments nor their component items violate normality grossly (Table 3).
The participants in this study revealed high levels of work-family conflict (M = 3.83; SD = 1.53) and low levels of work-family conflict (M = 2.53; SD = 1.28). They were also found to have high levels of well-being (M =7.37; SD = 1.35) and low levels of turnover intentions (M = 2.82; SD = 1.28). with regard to the association between the variables under study, the WFC is positively and significantly correlated with turnover intentions (r = .39; p < .01) and negatively correlated with well-being (r = -.30; p < .01). FWC has a negative and significant association with well-being (r = -.20; p < .01) and positive and significant association with turnover intentions (r = .13; p < .05). Well-being has a negative and significant association with turnover intentions (r = -.31; p < .01) (Table 4). The results indicate that only WFC has a positive and significant effect on turnover intentions (β = .42; p < .001). The model explains 16% of the variability in turnover intentions and is statistically significant (F (2, 310) = 28.61; p < .001).
The results indicate that only work-family conflict has a positive and significant effect on well-being (β = -.26; p < .001). The model explains 9% of the variability in well-being and is statistically significant (F (2, 310) = 16.60; p < .001). After performing the multiple linear regression test it is found that by introducing the mediating variable into the regression equation, it has a negative and significant effect on the dependent variable (β= -.21; p <.001) and the effect of WFC on turnover intentions weakens: M1 (β=.39; p<.001); M2 (β=.33; p<.001). In view of these results, it can be stated that well-being exerts a partial mediating effect on the relationship between WFC and turnover intentions. In Sobel’s test we obtained a Z = 3.47 with p < .001, which confirms the mediating effect.
The main purpose of this study was to test the effect of WFC and FWC on turnover intentions and if this relationship was mediated by well-being. Hypothesis 1 was partially confirmed, since only WFC has a positive and significant effect on turnover intentions. According to the literature, WFC is a major source of stress, reducing psychological resources and consequently leading to turnover intentions, as affected individuals begin to build the belief that in the face of WFC, it is best to leave the current job with the goal of its resolution . Hypothesis 2 was partially confirmed because only WFC has a negative and significant effect on well-being. These results are in line with what the literature says, because according to Granja  there is a negative and significant relationship between WFC and well-being.
The partial mediating effect of well-being on the relationship between WFC and organizational turnover intentions was proven. These results are in line with Wright and Bonett  that WFC has a significant and negative effect on well-being and well-being on turnover intentions. This study has some limitations. The main limitation is that it is a cross-sectional study, and self-report questionnaires were used. Several methodological and statistical recommendations were followed to reduce the impact of the common method variance .
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