Gerasimov Anatoly Vasilievich*
Received: November 25, 2019; Published: December 09, 2019
Corresponding author: Gerasimov Anatoly Vasilievich, Department of Sociology and Philosophy, Moscow State University of Economics and Economics, Russia
Education and socialization of students with disabilities will be more effective if you design and create a model of an inclusive educational environment that implements certain social; psychological and pedagogical conditions and reflects this very complex and multilateral process. The article analyzes the practical experience of universities in creating an inclusive educational environment for students with disabilities. In this connection; leading characteristics; structural components; and some problems of designing this environment at the university are discussed.
Keywords: Higher education; Students with disabilities; Disabled people; Inclusive educational environment; Inclusive education; Accessible environment; Educational needs.
Today; many indifferent people concerned about the issue:
how in the twentieth century I century feels Russian invalid; the
extent to which it met the specific needs of what is; by and large;
his philosophy of life in society. The answer to this question
depends on the degree of maturity of an inclusive society; public
policy with respect to persons with disabilities. And on the other
hand; the question can and should be raised; but what can ablebodied;
educated disabled person give to society? This is a topical
issue; primarily because in our country there has been a tendency
to reduce labor resources. The working-age population in Russia
will be reduced by more than 2 million by 2020. Therefore; the
employment of able-bodied people with disabilities is precisely that
reserve that will fill up the shortage of labor resources. We must
admit the fact that; despite the efforts made to integrate people
with disabilities into society; they still remain a special group; very
poorly included in social processes and very limited in rights; not
only because of their psychophysical characteristics; but also due to
a number of barriers to the realization of basic human needs.
So; the employment rate among disabled people of working age; according to the Ministry of Labor; is 25%; which is 2.5 times lower than the same indicator for Russians without restrictions on health. “Chronic” unemployment among people with disabilities of different nosologies reaches 77%. By 2020; the employment rate among people with disabilities should double and reach 50%. Now only every second student with a disability is subsequently employed-by 2020 this provider must grow to 90% [1-9] However; to achieve such indicators; it is necessary; first of all; to increase the effectiveness of career guidance for children with disabilities; the accessibility and quality of general professional and higher education. H ADO to take into account the fact that the number of children with disabilities up to 18 years in Russia from year to year - this year compared to last increased by almost 19 thousand. With oday general education system rapidly changing; increasingly adapting to training for children with disabilities. These changes; creating new opportunities for learning and socialization for children with disabilities; will in the future lead to an increase in their level of need for higher education. Therefore; universities should be prepared in advance for an increase in the number of applicants and students with disabilities. International experience offers models of vocational training for people with disabilities; both in an inclusive (or integrated) form; and in specialized centers equipped with special equipment; training technologies and conditions for people with disabilities to stay. Today; inclusion as a way of organizing the education of children with disabilities is recognized by the whole world community as the most humane.
Inclusion has become one of the leading strategies in Russian educational policy. The importance of creating an inclusive educational environment is recognized by socio- pedagogical practice; reinforced by the domestic regulatory framework; and becoming the norm. It is educational inclusion that meets the ideology as much as possible; which eliminates any form of discrimination against the disabled and creates the necessary conditions for their successful socialization. In modern psychological and pedagogical science and practice; the concept of “inclusive educational environment” is widely used when discussing the educational conditions of children with disabilities. Inclusive educational environment (hereinafter - IOS) is a special type of educational environment that involves solving the problem of education of children with disabilities by adapting the educational space to the needs of each child; including reforming the educational process; methodological flexibility and variability; a favorable psychological climate; and providing students with disabilities supporting services . This releases some levels inclusive air azovatelnoy environment .
The first level is also an inclusive general educational environment. E the level of implementation of inclusive general education purposes in a particular school with its terms; the objective factors of the regional environment of its location; as well as subjective factors; the characteristics of real subjects’ education. In the studies of [1-6] presents the leading characteristics of IOS in mass educational institutions. The second level is the inclusive environment of the educational organization of secondary vocational and higher education. E is a specially organized space that promotes the most comfortable receiving professional formation I ; taking into account the special educational needs and psycho- physical characteristics of students with disabilities . Moreover; this concept is interpreted widely. It includes not only the situation of the educational institution; but also “... the inner circle; the circle of communication of the disabled person: this is the family and those who surround him; who are next to him in the process of learning; during leisure hours” . And finally; the third level is the inclusive educational environment of a particular person (a student with a disability; his typical peer; teacher) as a subject of inclusive higher education. It is necessary; because the development of this environment is aimed at achieving educational goals and results. Naturally; the personal environment of each participant in the inclusive educational process should be self-organizing at the level of this person; but methodologically managed by the university. Therefore; the level of the educational environment of a university is a combination of specific conditions and individuality of students. The holistic educational environment of a university under inclusive education appears as a supersystem for many unique; personality-adapted; personally significant social and educational developmental environments of each and everyone . In recent years; experts have increasingly begun to pay attention to the design features of an inclusive educational environment [ 3,7-9]. The purpose of designing is to create a conceptual model of the educational environment; reflecting its essential properties and requirements for it in accordance with the educational specialization; the principles of the pedagogical system; the specifics of its implementation and subject teaching.
Each educational institution of higher education (university; academy; institute) creates its own IOS and; therefore; creates its own abstract and universal image (model of this university) for this environment. So; the purpose of the IOS project of the Moscow State University of Economics and Economics is to develop and test the current IOS model; which ensures the accessibility and improvement of the quality of higher education for people with disabilities with social security ; their socialization and integration into society through systemic state support for the learning process for people with disabilities. One of the main goals of the IOS formation is the development and adaptation of educational and informational educational resources for higher education programs to the needs of users (students with disabilities); the creation of a system of programmatic; normative and informational support for the processes of university education; compensation and rehabilitation ( habilitation ) of students disabled people; the development of various forms of alternative education; effective psychological and pedagogical support of the educational process ; providing spy the physiological health of all participants in the inclusive educational process .
Implementation of the project will make it possible to justify and design a model of training teachers in additional professional education for work in the conditions of IOS of the university; to develop and test diagnostic tools to determine the level of formation of teachers’ professional readiness for the formation of IOS in the university. In addition; the implementation of the university’s IOS project will be important to ensure the coherence of the actions of participants in the inclusive educational process; social partners; and the development of a system of psychological ; medical; pedagogical; informational; scientific; methodological and sociocultural support for students; teachers and staff involved in the formation of an adequate IOS ; increase the level of tolerance towards people with disabilities; their social adaptation and integration in ordinary groups of students. And the inclusive educational environment of a university is a pedagogical system that has a specific structure that includes a number of system components.
It characterizes the material capabilities of the university; such as: affordable (barrier-free ) architectural and spatial organization; provision of modern technical means and systems that meet the educational needs of students with disabilities and disabilities of various nosological groups. By law; a student with a disability has the right to apply for an adapted educational environment. By accepting such a student; the university takes responsibility; and the conditions must comply with its health restrictions. Implementation of the relevant regulatory standards for space accessibility; technical equipment and the arrangement of a “ barrier-free environment” for those universities that plan to accept disabled people for training is required. Building on our university’s territory an environment accessible for educating people with NODA was one of the first tasks that were solved when creating special educational conditions. On the instructions of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia in 2012; our university; together with the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering; developed guidelines for ensuring the accessibility of buildings and structures of educational institutions of secondary prof. and higher education for persons with disabilities of various nosological groups.
Monitoring of the status of inclusive higher education conducted by the RMTC shows that the vast majority of universities are not ready for the inclusion of disabled people either morally; methodologically; or technically [2,3]. Moreover; the lack of infrastructure for the needs of people with disabilities is one of the most acute problems limiting the access of people with disabilities to higher education. Universities with effective technologies for teaching students with disabilities and staff with relevant professional competencies are concentrated mainly in 10-12 subjects of the Central; Volga and North-West federal districts. This encourages some applicants with disabilities to apply to such universities. However; admission to them for people from remote regions is associated with a number of difficulties that not every potential student with disabilities is able to overcome.
Of course; ensuring the physical accessibility of the educational environment requires effort- organizational; financial. And not every university is seriously engaged in this. Moreover; if in former times; when there were no official strict requirements for the accessible environment of an educational institution; children with disabilities studied at a comprehensive school; they were accepted to universities; now disabled students are simply denied admission to the admission campaign; allegedly due to the lack of special conditions. So; according to the monitoring of the Ministry of Education and Science ; within the framework of the admission campaign of the last three years; people with disabilities submit approximately 10 to 12 thousand applications for admission to higher education programs ; and only every second applicant with disabilities receives it.
Includes curriculum and teaching and methodical the activities of students and teachers in the conditions of inclusive education ( goal ; differentiation; individualization and variation in the organization and content of the educational process ; teaching style and character control; flexible educational methods and technologies the ) . There is a widespread belief that most students with disabilities are not able to fully master the content of academic disciplines and receive a quality professional education. Indeed; they experience difficulties in mastering the educational program at the same pace; on the same educational material and in the same sequence as other students. And these circumstances must be considered when organizing an inclusive educational process . However; university practice shows that even with a technically equipped audience; teachers who do not have the skills to work with students with disabilities prefer to give the material the old fashioned way; ignoring the special educational needs of students with disabilities . Often; the teacher is satisfied with the empty “ sitting out “ of a disabled student at lectures; instead of an adequate presentation of the material; he tries to pay off with positive grades in the set-off. Or; on the contrary; it is not uncommon for a student with disabilities to impose unrealistic requirements for completing control tasks by misunderstanding . It is therefore important is finding teachers competences in methods of work in terms of inclusive higher education.
To create an adapted educational environment; according to [6,7] it is necessary: to apply experimental; stimulating interest and activity methods of development of students; apply more practical teaching methods; including business games; case technologies; apply methods of phased assimilation of new material; make students understand that they are responsible for completing assignments; provide them with greater freedom of choice; pay more attention to the emotional needs and interests of everyone; use unifying types of productive activities that contribute to the unity of students in an inclusive educational environment  . At the same time; it is necessary to proceed from the individual needs of each; using individualized types of activities; involve parents of students with disabilities in collaboration ; coordinate an individual educational route with them; rely only on the positive achievements of the learning outcomes . One of the productive mechanisms for ensuring accessibility and quality of education for people with disabilities and disabilities is distance learning; the possibilities of which are systematically increasing: the number of universities is increasing, and the quality of distance learning technologies is improving. According to the results of expert evaluations; no less than 80% of universities have access to educational portals for students; where they can master the training material needed to prepare for classes. Training using distance learning technologies is carried out in the implementation of full-time; part-time and part time forms of training.
This training offers a range of educational services provided to persons with disabilities and disability with the help of specialized information - educational environment; based on the medium of exchange of educational information at a distance. The choice of interactive teaching aids that provide operational interaction with the teacher; with other students; as well as with teaching material; helps to increase the effectiveness and quality of distance learning for students with disabilities and disabilities. The content-methodological component of the IOS of the university is interconnected with the means of information and communication technologies (ICT) and contains a system of information and educational resources (IOR) ; including a system of electronic educational resources (ESM). In 2016 designed and in March 2017 launched in test mode; the Internet portal of information support of inclusive higher education (https: // inklyuzivnoeobrazovanie born in f) ; a maximum of adapting the first for use by persons with disabilities when using the PC and various mobile devices. The portal contains and annually updates information on the state of ensuring the availability of conditions for the education of disabled people in universities. Currently; information is provided on 716 universities and 408 branches. It is possible to search for a university by given parameters (region; desired specialty; type of nosology of the applicant; and so on). Having specified a specific nosology; a disabled person can see a list of universities where the most favorable conditions for students with this disease are created; and also see the Atlas of the most popular professions. For students with disabilities; it is possible to take an online career guidance test and get advice on choosing the direction of preparation and admission to universities. In addition; there is access to a library of teaching materials and open courses tailored to nosology; and graduates are provided with information on employment opportunities.
The modern educational process at the university is high-tech in terms of using technical and informational teaching aids; which for a student with health restrictions can act both as a barrier and as a resource. On the one hand; complex laboratory work; including the use of technical devices; mandatory for many specialties and areas of training; can be difficult or dangerous for a student with visual; hearing; and motor impairments. On the other hand; modern computer and information technologies make it possible to provide information in a form accessible to students with sensory impairments (electronic magnifiers for the visually impaired and voice programs for the blind; sound amplifying equipment and multimedia for hearing impairments). Computer simulators allow students with motor disabilities in a simulation mode to perform experimental procedures inaccessible to them. A variety of ESM cannot and should not fully replace live communication with the teacher and other students during various forms of classroom activities; but can significantly help a student with disabilities. In this regard; providing an inclusive educational process with technical means of receiving and transmitting information in forms that meet the special educational needs of students with disorders of various nosology; as well as the development and application of appropriate pedagogical technologies; is an effective way to increase the accessibility of higher education for people with disabilities [8,4] .
The content-methodical component of the IOS of the university accumulates methodological resources; classified according to the subject and subjects of study; including those having electronic presentation. However; it is possible; for reasons of specific expediency; the allocation of a specialized resource component of the IOS that integrates all the methodological and educational information resources. The need for such a component is also caused by the fact that not all universities have experience in teaching and organizational and pedagogical support of disabled people of various nosological groups. In order to increase the effectiveness of the system of supporting the activities of universities for the education of persons with disabilities; 3 resource educational and methodological centers were created in 2016; and in October 2017; the RMTC network was expanded by creating another 13 RMCs based on educational institutions under the jurisdiction of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science ; including Moscow State University of Economics and Economics. In the higher education system; ROMCs act as a resource that other universities can use to increase the accessibility and quality of education for people with disabilities. The program for introducing inclusive education through the RMTC network is planned until 2020. For the most part; the centers are based in universities with departments of defect logical education; as well as in universities that have approved AEHE . In RUMTS launched retraining courses for the teaching staff of universities. On the one hand; the picture is rather optimistic the university community has moved in the right direction; on the other; the specialists of the RMTC believe; some of the universities undergo retraining to close the gap before accreditation.
Is a space of interpersonal interaction in a direct or subjectmediated
form and ways of interaction between subjects of an
inclusive educational process; a favorable psychological climate
in inclusive groups; management of team activities of specialists
providing inclusive practice at a university. Higher education; in
fact; ensures that students enter a wide variety of social interactions
into the special sociocultural environment of the university; which
creates and expands the basis for adaptation. Developing social
skills; collectivism; organizational skills; the ability to establish
contacts and collaborate with different people. A worldview and
civic position are being formed.
The practical experience of MSGEU shows that the introduction of an inclusive approach to teaching people with disabilities today faces not only difficulties in organizing an accessible environment (physical accessibility to university facilities; special teaching aids; and special equipment). The most difficult to solve are problems of a socio-psychological nature; including the prevailing stereotypes of education; the lack of readiness of participants in the educational process (teachers; students; parents) to accept new principles of education; the lack of comprehensive psychological and pedagogical knowledge and technology; special monitoring studies regarding the experience of inclusive higher education .
The socio-psychological situation in the educational institution is an important aspect of an inclusive educational environment. Here we are talking about the nature of the relationship that a student with a disability develops with teachers; other students; supervisors; all staff of the educational organization. In fact ; there are good reasons for relational barriers with an inclusive approach in modern conditions. So; when presenting the same requirements to all students; students with disabilities often need to spend more time to master the material they have gone through; make more effort than a “healthy” student. During the lecture; students with disabilities ask more clarifying questions; and the pace of writing material is much lower. As a result; “healthy” students have to expect a continuation of the lecture; which causes irritation in individuals; a conflict may arise in the group. Moreover; facts are known when people with disabilities that are not externally expressed acted on the side of discrimination against persons with disabilities . As psychologists note; this attitude is usually associated with one’s own disagreement with one’s real state of health It is also worth noting that the conflict can also occur between the “disabled” - “disabled” groups; and “healthy” students can support one or the other. According to our observations; conflicting parties are formed on issues of active and passive relations. So; students who study continuously in an inclusive approach within the walls of the university; more easily adapt to new conditions; establish contact with their peers. In addition to educational activities; they are engaged in scientific and social life; and show their leadership qualities. Students with disabilities who previously studied at a specialized educational institution or received a general education at home; the socialization process is difficult; time-consuming; there are communication barriers. A negative attitude arises between groups: students with an active position consider others unsure of themselves; students with a passive position consider the other group as “upstarts”; directly showing this with their behavior. In our opinion; despite such a negative attitude in groups; conflict can be considered as a way to resolve contradictions. The identification and resolution of conflicts as a whole is useful both for these social groups; and for society as a whole. Paying attention to conflict resolution; an individual; group or society as a whole achieve more effective results; of course; if they follow certain rules aimed at the civilized regulation of conflicts and management of their development .
The most important aspect of the communicative and organizational component of the IOS is the management of inclusive practice at the university. It is well known that the education and socialization of a person with disabilities is a complex problem even in a special educational institution. Inclusion of the educational process makes even greater demands on the interprofessional and interagency interaction of specialists. The managers in the field of vocational education; combining the knowledge of a wide range of pedagogical technologies of higher education with special defect logical training; are practically absent. To create a truly inclusive university; it is necessary to cultivate such professionals of a new formation. It is obvious that the country’s universities will inevitably have to solve a wide variety of tasks in the formation of an adapted educational environment - methodological; technical; regulatory and accreditation. But; first of all; participants in the educational process need to learn inclusive interaction-full-scale entry into equal relations. By this distribution of roles or di students or ordinary students or teachers are often not prepared. It is such a conscious “inclusion” that needs to be learned first.
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