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ISSN: 2641-1709

Scholarly Journal of Otolaryngology

Research Article(ISSN: 2641-1709)

Physicians’ vs Population Size in Developing World: A Sociological Appraisal Volume 9 - Issue 1

Mohammad Taghi Sheykhi*

  • Professor Emeritus of Sociology, Alzahra University, Iran

Received: September 09, 2022;   Published: September 20, 2022

Corresponding author: Mohammad Taghi Sheykhi, Professor Emeritus of Sociology, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

DOI: 10.32474/SJO.2022.09.000301

Abstract PDF


Physicians are highly expected to learn and propagate more about population dynamics. In this way, they can give a lot of advice to many women and families. Physicians are found in every country, and the world who are of prime importance to the clients. They are a fruitful source of experience and advice for ordinary people, other planners and government agents. So, such experts must always be attached/ linked with common citizens. Physicians must provide family planning knowledge to all women of different ages from puberty to menopause and old age. Childbirth as an ordinary biological action could be screened by the physicians in every society. They could be of a mutual relationship with the statisticians creating a harmonic society. Physicians’ expertise on family planning could lead to a healthy society with safety. Their knowledge on family planning could minimize the infant mortality rate as well as the maternal mortality. But, so to say, many physicians and otolaryngologists are away of family planning knowledge.

Keywords: Family planning training; Parental responsibility; Family planning helping the whole community; Family counseling; Sociology

Family and Community Planning Program

Sociologically speaking, physicians, or better to say otolaryngologists need to know about all the ups and downs of population in general, and particularly in countries where they reside. Kids highly growing in developing world, are much vulnerable. Therefore, the physicians/pediatrics need to be constantly aware of the statistics and trends/dynamics of the growing children, their mothers and so on. If mothers have had four or more deliveries, it is the physicians who must interfere and notify them how to plan their childbirth. Physicians need to share their experiences with the statisticians and other relevant agencies. Such a cooperation will lead to a healthy population in different cohorts. The current life with overpopulation needs more supervision by physicians. The whole process eventually leads to an appropriate equilibrium, wherein there would be healthy population with sufficient food, housing, jobs etc.

Human population planning is the practice of intentionally controlling the growth rate of a human population. The practice traditionally referred to as population control, had historically been implemented mainly with the goal of increasing population growth, though from the 1950s to the 1980s, concerns about overpopulation and its effects on poverty, the environment and political stability led to efforts to reduce population growth rates in many countries. More recently, however, several countries such as China and Japan made serious efforts to bring about reformations (The Japan Times, 2020); (BBC News,2020); (Lee, 2020); BBC, 2020).

During the twentieth century, the world’s population has increased, and the trend of its increase has caused those involved and those who are thinking about food, clothing, housing, etc. people to pay more attention to the issue of population and control the population in a controlled way. Bring. Family planning programs have become commonplace throughout the twentieth century. Following the increase in population, the family planning program became a mandatory move in some communities. The issue of population control was first raised by Malthus more than two hundred years ago, who said the population must be resourceconsistent. Malthus was one of the founders of demography, which generally encouraged population control. The family planning program is related to the issue of the city and urbanization and civilization; That is, urbanization is important in creating demographic order and implementing family planning programs. The first countries to control populations were industrialized and developed countries, countries where mortality was low. With increasing health and medicine, population control increased again. In industrialized countries, as the family changed, all family members became active, women became employed, and so on, this led to changes in family culture and in the social and economic dimensions. One of the communities in which family planning programs were established before the others was the United Kingdom, where the Industrial Revolution took place, and subsequently in France, Japan, etc. Since the establishment of family planning programs, quality The population has also changed.

In Iran, since 1989, family planning programs have been made public. In China, too, these programs have been mandatory since 1979, in which families, especially in urban areas, have only one child, and this policy has improved and developed that community; That is, it has caused people to have jobs and professions after reaching working age. The family planning program is of vital importance to Iran and many developing societies. This plan is also an integral part of the country’s national development programs. Given that the population of Third World countries at the beginning of 2000 accounted for more than 80% of the world’s population, not engaging in such programs (family planning program) is itself a serious threat to developing societies. Therefore, developing countries, using modern technologies, should spread family planning programs in their communities as quickly and widely as possible. Due to the large decrease in mortality rate, and the increase in life expectancy in the Third World in general and Iran in particular, population control in its natural form in a way that is appropriate and appropriate to the conditions, seems wise and inevitable. Hence, the social order and proper functioning of human societies are dependent on family planning programs. As the world’s population quadrupled during the twentieth century and Iran’s population quadrupled during the second half of the twentieth century, given these facts, governments are increasingly thinking of controlling their population in various ways; Unforeseen calamities and problems await such countries.

Thus, its fertility control acts as an important and decisive tool in addressing the challenges of poverty, unemployment and resource risk. The danger of population growth, although felt in many developing societies, including India, since the 1960s, has been felt in many other developing societies since the last decades of the twentieth century. Hence, many of these communities are still not sufficiently aware of the consequences of this issue. Iran and many other developing societies with adequate investment, proper organization, employment of efficient manpower, etc. in the form of what is called family planning, must control their population. Therefore, in order to fully achieve the goals of family planning programs and ensure its success, Iran must also invest more in this area, as has happened in India since 1966 and China since 1979. With such a picture of the necessity of a family planning program, Iran should also accelerate its movement in this field. The use of such programs has brought many benefits to these communities. These programs have played an important role in the development of such communities and many others.

Family planning programs have been implemented in many societies according to cultural conditions and how people are accepted, given priorities, and so on. In countries such as India and China, which are very densely populated, voluntary sterilization of men and women and other common methods are underway. By using different methods, these countries have been able to create more order in their population.

This trend has ultimately led to the social and economic development of these communities. Educational aspects and increasing public awareness play an effective role in the implementation of family planning programs. How you advertise the usefulness and benefits of programs plays an important role in advancing the goals of your family planning programs. Such a move occurs mainly in developing societies and countries, which are at a low level in terms of literacy and education. Therefore, the recommendation of international organizations is that underdeveloped countries should invest sufficiently in advertising. Orientation and mobile classes, especially in rural areas, have played an effective role in introducing family planning programs. Therefore, providing socio-cultural context for the adoption of family planning programs is very important. By educating the population in general, by educating women, creating social justice in society, guiding women to economic and social affairs, and cultural growth and development in the form of such criteria, all play an effective role in accepting family planning programs in its various forms. The community management and planning system must operate in such a way that culturally and socially barriers to birth control are minimized; It is in this way that more success in family planning programs is created [1-12].

Global guidelines, encouraging governments, evaluating their performance in this regard, etc. also play an important role in the success of family planning programs. Also, maintaining a family planning budget and increasing it proportionately on an annual basis, if necessary, will help advance the goals of family planning programs. Fortunately, today, global and international monitoring, as well as regional cooperation, have enabled countries to achieve many of their goals in family planning programs in a desirable and appropriate way. However, in the 1970s (1970s), such a field and opportunity was less available to many countries. By taking such plans, many unwanted births can be prevented. For example, by adopting such policies, India has been able to prevent 100 million unwanted births in the country since the 1980s. Such selfsufficiency guarantees the fields of social welfare, social security, food abundance, social and economic health, and the like for future generations as much as possible. The rest of the countries should also use, or in other words, establish the tested policies of countries with experience in family planning.

It is noteworthy that in the last three decades following the development of societies, there has been a significant decrease in the population growth index in many societies, which is itself an increase in births versus mortality, i.e since 1970, when the average world population growth was about Was estimated to be 1.9%). Over the last three decades, many human societies have been able to significantly reduce their population growth by using various birth control mechanisms. Sociologically, this has led to social development for them. Population growth index in 1975 to Decreased by 1.64%; The decline in Asia was largely due to cooperation between China and Europe, following measures by West and East Germany and Austria, and in North America following US policies. At the same time, today all countries have contributed to the reduction of population growth by adopting a family planning program, so that the available resources can be used to a reasonable extent.

Overall, social development and the rise of the value system of societies have reduced the world population growth index to 4.1% in 1999 and the China index from 1.85% in the 1970s to 1.1% in 1999. In Iran, this figure has decreased to about 1.5% during 1999 due to many efforts. Improving living standards, income levels, improving health indicators and the like are among the factors that have played a role in reducing the population growth index. The birth rate, which in Japan was estimated at 18.6 per thousand in the 1970s, dropped to 10,000 per thousand in 1999, as a result of a variety of family planning and fertility control programs. The internalization and increase of family planning programs has depended on the level of women’s employment, the improvement of the situation in the field of social freedoms, the growth of social security, better and more advanced government regulations and the like. In such circumstances, and following the creation of social contexts by governments, couples are free to decide and choose the number of their children. That is, how are the conditions more favorable for them? Motivating and eliminating self-motivation plays an important role in the success of family planning programs. This movement must be strengthened by the population planning system.

Method of Research

Methodology used in the present article is of qualitative type. In that, various paradigms have been used to find out about the facts regarding pandemics during the history. Qualitative research usually studies people, events or areas in their natural settings. In finding facts for the research, the researcher engaged in careful data collection and thoughtful analysis of what was relevant. In the documentary research applied for the present research, printed and written materials were widely regarded. The research was performed as a qualitative library-type in which the researcher had to refer to the relevant and related sources. In the current research, various documents were thoroughly investigated, and the needful inferences were made. The data fed by the investigator in the present article is hopefully reliable. Though literature on pandemics is very limited, yet the author tried to investigate many different resources in order to elicit the necessary information to build up the text.

Family life and family planning training

Family life, or in other words, how family life, while affecting family planning education, is also affected by it. Education of the family itself today plays an effective role in the implementation of family planning programs. Family education as a new topic in family sociology has been considered by many social planners, population and family planning, and it can be very useful and effective for students and teachers. Likewise, the health of family life, achieving a high quality of life, its security, etc., all depend on family planning education. Developing societies, which generally face high population growth, have made family planning education programs a priority today. Family education or self-education is considered as a scientific field related to the formation of characteristics, marital relationships, moral attitudes and the like. Marital life, while having physical, social, moral and emotional dimensions, also affects economic progress and development. In short, Sex Education itself is a combination of better movement and atomic order. In other words, marital education leads to greater social and family desirability. It is in this context and in the context of its appropriateness and desirability that the abilities of individuals are well used, life finds its richness, and the life and personality of individuals are formed and continued. This type of education has been on the agenda of the educational program in industrial societies for many years, and generally young people, especially in their formal education courses, become familiar with its basics and principles, which guarantees them more behavioral and personality health.

Therefore, education in the framework of family planning programs can be achieved through books, materials and tutorials. Today, following a revolutionary change in this field, in many societies, many cases that have arisen due to ignorance and ignorance in this regard, especially among the younger generation in different societies, have been eliminated in order to prevent an explosive increase in population in those societies. It has helped a lot. The result of such a move is more economic development, social progress, higher productivity, utilization of people’s abilities to the desired extent, and so on. In general, the following are the goals of family education in family life and are:

a) The need and necessity of marriage: This field includes why marriage, choosing a spouse, aspirations (marriage), related values, behavioral frameworks and the like. In general, one of the main goals of family education in the institution of marriage is hidden and reflected, that is, the process to which family planning education is one hundred percent related, and in which it must be implemented and practiced.

b) Physical aspects of marriage: Understanding the anatomical and physiological aspects of reproduction is a necessity to know better about marriage.

In fact, this information should be provided by the education system (school), and even in previous cases by parents at the appropriate age should be provided to children and adolescents. It should be noted that in many cases, marriages take place in which girls have very little information about the physical aspects of marriage, and that in itself leads to many problems for them. This information includes premarital tests to find out each other’s health, blood type (RH) tests, and more. Familiarity with contraception, even at the beginning of marriage, provides better opportunities for couples (men and women to continue their married life; that is, when, for example, when the first child is born after marriage, and so on.) The physical aspects of marriage itself also play an important role in the health and continuity of marriage. Benefits and benefits related to distance, number of children, education and services related to them, education of women, employment and maintaining their job position, etc. are among the benefits of being familiar with the physical aspects of marriage at the beginning of marriage. If these things happen, women will have more assurance and security in maintaining their position. With training in this regard, young couples at the beginning of their marriage should be familiar with different methods of prevention. So what methods and tools are more necessary at the beginning of marriage and what methods in the later stages. If you are familiar with contraceptive methods, you will be less likely to resort to abortion, and only in special cases and to prevent the emergence of unwanted children, the appearance of undesirable physical effects, etc. According to legal standards in some community’s abortion face Takes. It should be noted that if you receive the necessary training, familiarity with family planning programs, observing the fertility calendar and the like, there is no need to use abortion. Therefore, and in the framework of the new recommendations of the World Health Organization, the transmission of premarital information to the younger generations and about marriage is very necessary and emphasized.

Parental responsibility and family motivation

The family, as a basic social structure, is an institution in which the social duty of replacement and rebirth is realized. According to such a duty, which is basically the responsibility of the family, a responsibility must also be created (exist) for it. Although the family is the smallest social unit, it is a dynamic unit that directly and indirectly plays a role in creating or losing a balanced relationship between food supply and population growth. Hence, the parents’ sense of responsibility towards the family creates a balance between food and population size. Creating such a balance leads to the efficiency of the population, better family performance, satisfaction between parents and children, and so on. Changing standards and criteria in the present age has created many motivations for family planning. In the new age, families, both urban and rural, each with their own criteria, methods to adjust the number of children, the distance between them, and even in terms of gender, to reach the desired population or children.

Population growth, which begins primarily with the family, plays a key role in balancing food and population. The efforts of governments in recent decades have led to an estimated population growth index in 1999 in India equal to 1.9 percent, in Iran 1.8 percent, in Syria 2.8 percent and the like. The determinant index has decreased to such an extent in recent years due to the parents’ sense of responsibility in the family institution. In general, the family unit or institution in the present age, according to the new standards, feels more responsible to the family as far as family planning programs are concerned. Similarly, many governments are trying to reduce their population growth in the coming years. Since the stability of their moral principles depends on the parents’ sense of responsibility, therefore, as far as the family planning program is concerned, couples should use their vigilance and common sense to make the family planning programs as good and desirable as possible. To implement. Therefore, maintaining moral integrity in society, social order and having an economically productive society depend on the parents’ sense of responsibility towards the family and using family planning programs. The well-being and health of your family is in the same order, and it includes the following:

a. The right of the child to be wanted, to be shown compassion, care, education, training, etc.

b. The future of the child, as far as his medicine and food are concerned, plays a role in creating the welfare and health of the family.

c. The health and well-being of the mother in the form of distance, etc., makes sense in such a way that the mentioned health is maintained and provided, in such a way that the mentioned health is maintained and guaranteed, so that the children are also safe. This means that the safety of the mother and child depends on family planning programs.

d. Considerations related to social conditions should also be taken into account so that social order is not endangered or destroyed due to population pressure.

In any case, it is ultimately a married couple who have to decide on the number of their children. Ideally, parents should make decisions based on their position, their health, their financial situation and their ability, and the extent to which they can provide emotional and security care for their children. Feel responsible and define the format of their family. These conditions motivate family planning. Parents are responsible for planning a healthier tomorrow for their children, and that makes sense within the framework of family planning programs. Hence, the quality of life of future generations, the efficiency of new generations and their public safety all depend on the parents’ sense of responsibility. The responsibility of parents in the form, its adjustment itself depends on or depends on two determining elements, namely:

a) Adjusting the birth according to its sensitivity

b) Clear and transparent awareness of the responsibility of children.

Paying attention to these two factors means using family planning. With such a sense of responsibility, they are motivated by a smaller family, and they even pass that thought on to their children. All parents should take care of their children by choice and not by chance. In other words, the number of children should be optional and random. The emergence of such thinking should also provide an incentive to limit the family among newly married couples. According to the following principles, the family planning approach should be strengthened between families, i.e:

a. Humans are the essence of seeking respect, self-confidence, freedom, moral responsibility and the like. Therefore, the ground for achieving the above through education, explanation of scientific attitudes and the like should be provided. Likewise, when the number of people is limited through family planning programs, the quality of human beings is improved and consequently the mentioned characteristics and traits become achievable.

b. Because men and women in society often meet their wants and needs in terms of which methods are more beneficial to them, and in general, which methods are more satisfying for them. , Is sensitive and curious. Therefore, useful and effective educational and learning conditions should be provided for them through film screenings, exhibitions, parent-teacher associations, seminars, etc., thus strengthening the motivation of family planning in them as much as possible. It is noteworthy that in the absence of motivation, family planning programs will not be successful. Therefore, the planning system and system should be more involved in this regard.

c. Because people react differently to different motivational methods, and also because an effective and successful method for one group may not be so attractive to another, the needs and interests of different social groups in In particular, family planning should be touched and felt, and appropriate methods should be recommended accordingly. In simpler terms, appropriate methods should be introduced and recommended according to the desire of individuals, their value characteristics, their social, rural and urban classes.

d. Those who are responsible for leading, advising and motivating in family planning programs, should be aware of the type of method, when to use it and in general why and how the programs, ie their role in Religious centers, hospitals and other voluntary organizations play well. Hence, the role of such institutions is very effective in parental responsibility, and in accepting family planning programs. That being said, counseling and leadership play a major role in the success of family planning programs.

e. His success acts as a powerful teacher. Therefore, the basis of a successful experience and effective initiative is very effective in maintaining the motivation to control births and strengthening the sense of responsibility in parents. Therefore, such programs should be used so that the result of their success is itself as a motivation to be welcomed and accepted by others. As a result, the right investment is very effective in this regard.

f. Motivating Approaches can help people reconsider their commitments, and subsequently adopt the right and effective approach to family planning programs. At this stage, the role of the media is very effective, therefore, using the media, many intellectual frameworks of individuals and families can be influenced, create a greater sense of responsibility in them, and seek It further expanded the acceptance of family planning programs among them.

Family planning as helping the whole community

Family planning with its services helps all different sections of society in different ways. The importance of implementing family planning programs has been proven in recent years for all human societies that have been somehow connected to development programs. In Iran, during the last four decades, the use of family planning program has been discussed intermittently, but the necessary grounds for its full and continuous implementation have not been provided. In recent years, the need to use different methods of family planning has been raised more than ever in the past, so it has become a priority in population programs. Family planning programs include different sections of society and different sectors in the following order, or in other words, affect, which are:

Women: Family planning programs protect women from having unwanted children and unwanted pregnancies. Such programs have helped women around the world avoid the 400 million unwanted pregnancies since the 1960s. As a result of such a move, many women’s lives have been saved from the dangers of unhealthy and dangerous pregnancies and abortions. If all women can avoid the risks of unwanted pregnancies, the maternal mortality rate will be reduced by a quarter. Also, many family planning methods, in addition to the health benefits it brings to women, protect them against many communicable diseases such as AIDS or HIV positive. By presenting such assumptions, many women in different societies today have embraced large-scale family planning programs, and this trend is developing and spreading among women in the poorer countries of the world.

Children: In addition to women, family planning programs also ensure the lives of children and children to a large extent by seeking to distance children; Fewer children die following this flow and so on. Therefore, by using different methods of family planning programs, the health of children is also guaranteed. While between 13 and 15 million children die each year at the age of less than 5 years, if these children are born into families at least two years apart, 3 to 4 million such children die. Prevention can be done globally, and in smaller countries, at the micro level. Hence, the health of children also depends on family planning programs. Differences in child mortality in their industrialized and non-industrialized are largely due to the use of family planning programs in those societies. For example, the child mortality rate in 1999 for the Gambia in Africa was 130 per thousand, while in the same year it was estimated at 26 per thousand for Iran and about 3.7 per thousand for Japan. Such a picture in 1999 shows health services, family planning programs, and vaccinations of children in different communities.

Men: In addition to women, family planning programs also help men. In a situation where the number of children is limited, men in the family feel more comfortable and secure. Also, they can take better care of their families. According to surveys conducted in different communities, men have stated that by adopting family planning programs, individuals and family members can pay more attention to themselves. For such families, there is more welfare, more income, more annual income and so on.

Families: Family planning programs also guarantee the wellbeing of families. Hence, couples with less children are able to get enough food, enough clothes, proper housing, proper education, health care, and so on. Therefore, in order to maintain the health of the family institution, family planning programs should be further expanded in a community. In order to improve the quality of the family institution, it is necessary to use family planning methods and achieve a limited family in terms of population.

Nations: Family planning programs, in addition to the above, also contribute to the progress and development of nations. In countries where women have fewer children than their mothers, the economic situation of individuals and individuals in the population is rapidly improving. Such a movement is seen in many developing societies today. That is, newer generations have a higher standard of living than older generations. The policies of many governments today are in this format.

Earth or globe: If couples have fewer children through family planning programs, the world’s population, which exceeded 6 billion in late 1999, will double later. However, in the face of rapid population growth, the world’s population in many places will double in 20 years. According to a 1999 study, while some industrialized nations double their population in 583 years, the population of developing countries doubles in 40 years. This situation has many social consequences. Therefore, in order to maintain the health of the environment and the better movement of the planet, family planning programs in various forms should be welcomed by the population.

Family counseling and planning

Counseling plays a vital role in family prevention and planning. In this way, counselors help their clients and clients to determine their choices and through it to adjust their fertility programs. Your counseling process is complementary to family planning programs. It makes it easy for relevant people (age groups at risk for fertility) to become familiar with prevention information. Therefore, investing in consulting is known to be useful and effective. This allows the young age groups of the society (especially women 18 to 30 years old) to define their childbearing frameworks as far as starting and spacing are concerned.

Optimal advice

Good counseling brings more satisfaction in choosing family planning. Proper counseling also helps clients to use family planning programs longer and more successfully. It should be noted that the most effective age for counseling is 18-30 years old. In this way, family planning programs are implemented in the desired format in the desired community. Choosing the appropriate methods from other methods according to the general condition of the person (client), its physical and mental reactions, etc. is very important. Therefore, the planning system in any society should encourage and disseminate consulting techniques as much as possible. What is needed and necessary during a desirable consultation, especially for new clients who are being selected, is based on six principles. This is how all the points are covered, and the actions of doing all these principles in the course of the work are interrelated. A good consultation does not take much time, especially if the information is tailored to the needs of the client. Optimal counseling requires staff training, proper attitude and respect for clients and finally proper care for them.

Six principles of counseling

a) Appropriate and desirable treatment: In the framework of this principle, the consultant should be polite and thus create a sense of trust in the clients. In such situations, the consultant enters the discussion and even the client deals with sensitive issues. The counselor should also speak patiently with his or her case based on this principle and ensure that their statements and secrets are not discussed outside the clinic. Therefore, the confidentiality of counselors, mutual respect between counselors and clients, and building trust by the counselor in the client are among the points that are important for the success of the family planning program.

b) Interaction: At this stage, the counselor listens to his client, receives his content and statements, and responds to him accordingly. Because each client has a different personality, the counselor can help the client in a desirable way if he / she has a good understanding of his / her needs, interests or concerns and his / her situation in general. Therefore, the counselor or facilitator should encourage clients to talk and ask questions. If such a principle is followed, clients and those in need of family planning services can better meet their needs.

c) Providing information to the client: By listening to the client, the consultant finds out how each client needs information. Also, the status of each client reflects the fact that what information is needed for his client. For example, a newly married woman (young lady) may need temporary separation methods. While an older woman may need information about sterilization and tubectomy, or an unmarried girl and boy who are young may need more information about the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (sexually transmitted diseases).

In this format, each client receives personal answers as needed. Therefore, the counselor, depending on the situation of his client, should talk and consult with his case.

d) Avoid or avoid providing too much information: Clients need information about their specific choices, and therefore should be given information as needed; That is, the heavy burden of information in various fields should be avoided. Because there are different methods in family planning programs, and each of them has its own application according to age and gender, the counselor should refrain from providing irrelevant information separately, and provide information to the client according to his / her wishes. In this way, the desired goals will be achieved sooner.

e) Presenting the client’s favorite method: Since each client usually has a specific method in mind, the consultant should follow his instructions accordingly. In addition, the counselor can guide the client in other similar ways. If clients come up with something out of the ordinary, then they have to re-think their position. Therefore, the consultant should introduce accessible and similar methods to his client. It should be noted that the provision of such services in different countries varies according to the general situation of society, literacy or illiteracy of individuals, norms and values in society and the like.

f) Helping the client to understand and remember: The counselor and service provider shows the sample family planning materials to the client and encourages and compels him to evaluate them. The consultant also reminds the consumer how to use the mentioned substances. The service provider also provides relevant brochures, charts, and illustrations, thereby trying to convince the client to be more involved. In general, the consultant should provide the required materials to each client as needed. Also, information should be provided to consumers through other means such as radio and television and other means of mass communication. Due to the current situation and population growth, high fertility in the community, ignorance of a large part of the population and the like, family planning counseling centers should be established and expanded in the community, both urban and rural, so that it can be Achieved family planning goals.

Socio-economic consequences of abortion (unhealthy)

Generally, in communities where family planning programs are not carried out properly and in a timely manner, in contrast, abortions occur, simply to avoid unwanted children and births. Therefore, if family planning programs are in place, timely and well implemented for the target age groups, the need for abortion will occur less in a community. It is also worth noting that many cases of abortion in many societies occur in an unhealthy way that leads to undesirable complications. As a result, many communities have even considered abortion operations to be illegal or permitted in certain circumstances. The World Health Organization estimates that there are about 20 million unhealthy abortions worldwide each year, resulting in 80,000 deaths. According to another estimate, 13% of these cases were recorded as maternal mortality during childbirth. Other studies show that 28% of maternal deaths in Zimbabwe, 21% in Tanzania and 54% in Ethiopia in Africa are due to unhealthy abortions. In Latin America, more than 50% of all maternal deaths are due to unhealthy abortions. However, 75 million of the 175 million pregnancies that occur worldwide each year are unintended. Women who experience such conditions somehow want to end the situation for themselves, and thus attempt an abortion. Failure to use contraceptives provides such conditions. The mentioned situation, while being influenced by special social and economic conditions, also leads to a special socioeconomic situation. For example, there are many cases of children who have lost their mothers, and the like, which itself deprives the relevant population of socio-economic desirability in the present and even in future opportunities.

Although family planning services are now more available than ever before, experts estimate that there are still at least 350 million couples worldwide who do not have prevention information and do not have access to family planning services and practices. In some cases, services may be needed at some point, but women may have problems with lack of literacy, education, information, or decision-making power. Therefore, in addition to producing prevention devices and providing them, providing information and how to use them in place is of great importance. If the required information is not provided to consumers, the risk of miscarriage increases; That is, a situation that brings with it many economic and social problems. In some cases, the problem is due to the failure of prevention tools. As a result of this problem, between 8 and 30 million pregnancies occur annually due to improper functioning of contraceptives in the world. Improper use of tools, irregular use of methods, etc., can each be a problem in some way. Therefore, institutions and organizations of family planning programs should have sufficient confidence in the proper health and effectiveness of prevention tools, and on the other hand, the necessary instructions or instructions on how to use the necessary tools (relevant tools at their disposal). In such a situation, family planning programs are successful. Factors influencing the acceptance of abortion method are:

a. Insult, rape (unwanted communication)

b. Mental and physical health issues where the health of the mother or fetus is at risk

c. Failure of prevention tools

d. Divorce or unstable and unstable relationship

e. Trouble or financial problems

f. Teen age Pregnancy

g. Willingness to continue education

h. Singleness

i. Many children

j. Not wanting a child

Overall, approximately 96% of the world’s population lives in countries where abortion is permitted in situations where women’s lives are at stake. Also, 72% of the world’s population is in countries where abortion occurs in a situation of desecration or endangering the physical health of women. However, in many cases, women do not know what services are available to them in this area. Which cases are legal and ...? Even their health officials are faced with ambiguities in this regard in many cases, that is, they do not know under what circumstances to perform an abortion, under what conditions it is allowed, and under what circumstances it is not allowed, and ...?

Measures to prevent and reduce abortion

One of the most important ways to reduce the risk of miscarriage, whether healthy or unhealthy (safe / unsafe) is to help couples avoid unwanted pregnancies. Among these, the role of family planning programs is important. Research shows that For example, studies conducted by the Population Council show that in Chile, with the increase in the number of miscarriages, Using family planning programs from 3.3% to 56% of married women Between 1960 and 1990, the rate of abortions dropped from 77 per 1,000 married women of childbearing age to 45 per 1,000 at this age. In Kazakhstan, where the use of pills and other contraceptives increased by 32% between 1988 and 1995, the rate of abortions dropped to 15%. There are still approximately 350 million couples worldwide who are unaware of family planning programs and in different ways Do not have access. This has led to many cases of abortion resulting in death and adverse complications among such groups. Therefore, one of the objective and practical methods of preventing abortion is the same as the spread and introduction of family planning programs. Nowadays, many governments have widely felt responsible for reducing abortions by investing in family planning programs.

Likewise, between 120 and 150 million married women worldwide who want to postpone or stop their childbearing cannot easily use a desirable method (family planning methods). In some cases, the number of unmarried women adds between 12 and 15 million to this population deprived of contraceptives. Hence, governments in the present age are obliged to introduce and promote tools of prevention appropriate to the cultural conditions of a society, in order to achieve the desired population. The role of family planning officials, educators, appropriate incentives, motivation, establishment of counseling centers, etc. can be mentioned in this regard. By investing in these cases, different societies today can create such a demographic situation for themselves, to maintain a balance between population and resources. It should also be noted that the ultimate goal of implementing family planning programs, while maintaining population health, is to create a balance between population and resources. Such a theory is now recommended by many demographers, health officials, and demographic research centers turns.

Need prevention tools in the new age

While the population of developing countries was estimated at about four billion in 1990, by 2000 the population had grown to about five billion. This increase, although the result of population growth and high birth rates in such countries, will account for a large share of the world’s future population. Widespread access to prevention services is inevitable if the population growth of these countries is to be limited, and that in itself requires the creation of socio-cultural conditions and new value systems. That is, until socio-cultural developments in these countries are not realized, prevention of population growth in its general and widespread sense will not be implemented. In addition, the cost of goods and services should be in line with their consumer income index in developing societies. Because of the lack of coordination between public incomes and birth control costs in developing countries, charities voluntarily provide large amounts of assistance to developing countries, in order to Be able to meet the needs of prevention services. While the total fertility rate (TFR) in developing countries was approximately 3.8 children per woman in 1990, the figure fell to 3.2 children per woman in 1999, following It has been promoting the culture of family planning in these communities. It is noteworthy that the decrease in this index was more than the United Nations forecast of 3.3 children per woman in 2000. This means that birth control policies in the Third World have generally been successful. It is also emphasized that birth control policies in these countries must be sustained continuously.

During the 1990s, the number of married women of childbearing age (MWRA) increased by about two hundred and twelve million. Approximately (28%), from 747 million in 1990 to 959 million in 2000, and this increase has led to many demographic problems in developing countries. Such an increase would require significant demographic policies and more investment. Following the widespread use of contraceptives during the 1990s, the total fertility rate in 1999 dropped to an average of 3.2 children per woman. Total fertility refers to the number of children a woman gives birth to in her lifetime. The index is estimated at 5.4 children in Africa in the same year (1999), 2.9 children in Latin America, and 2.8 children per woman in Asia. Global efforts are aimed at transforming the general culture of the population and thereby maintaining fertility at a desirable level. Such a situation requires a good relationship between population, resources and services.

While the prevalence of contraceptives in 1999 (use of all instruments) worldwide was 58%, the index was 72% in industrial societies and 55% in developing societies. The mentioned index in Iran in the same year has been announced about 73%. The prevalence of prevention tools among the younger generation is a social and cultural issue in many countries today. Social planners using the mechanisms and methods of sociology, psychology, education, ethics, etc. should try to arouse the desire of the population at the age of reproduction to accept new methods of birth control. In other words, social planners must increase the prevalence of prevention tools by adopting appropriate demographic policies, which in turn requires the necessary training, capital, technology and specialists. It is noteworthy that developing countries still have a long way to go to increase their prevention coverage, thereby reducing their population growth rate. In this movement, the use of specialties such as psychology, sociology and the like becomes inevitable. In general, extensive investments and planning are required to create a new culture, as far as the population is concerned. Industrialized countries have started such a movement a long time ago, a century ago). While developing countries and societies have made such a move over the last half century.

And while most developing countries often have a young population (34% in 1999) more publicity, wider education, and thus raising the culture of acceptance of prevention tools are necessary and inevitable. It is noteworthy that the decline in the proportion of its young population is achieved through decades of time and investment. This issue is mostly related to developing countries. While in 1999 more than 1.632 billion people in developing countries were in the under-15 age group, these countries will need to invest more in the demographics in the coming years. It has caused problems and shortcomings for third world countries. Reducing the young population in developing countries is not feasible without international support and the use of guidelines from such countries. To achieve an alternative level where the total fertility rate is 1/2 of a child for a woman, the coverage of contraceptive use must increase to 75% at the beginning of the 21st century, otherwise the population will continue to grow. This means that the number of users of contraceptives doubled between 2000 and 1990; That is, from 381 million in 1990 to 720 million at the end of the century. These figures and indicators all indicate the trend of population growth in developing countries, which themselves emphasize in various ways that prevention tools are increasingly used in the new age groups of young populations (15 to 24 years).

Prevention methods

In explaining consumer prevention tools in developing countries during the early 1990s, 171 million or 45% of preventive tool users relied on sterilization. Approximately 41 million or 37% of these cases involve female sterilization and 30 million cases or 8% involve male sterilization. Also during this period, 93 million users or 24% used IUD prevention tools, and 46 million or 12% of all users used drugs and pills. It should be noted that 23 million Or 6% used other devices, while some used traditional methods. The above statistics all indicate an increasing trend in preventing population growth. Developed and developing countries generally use this tool. Using different prevention tools, different countries and communities also help in social and economic development. Due to the large population in Asia and Russia, this region has the highest rate of sterilization, i.e 150 million people or 89% of the total number of cases in the Third World. Countries such as China and India, as the two most populous countries in the world, have the highest number of sterilization cases compared to other Asian countries. The policies of governments, their guidance and the creation of the necessary grounds help to welcome this method.

To meet UN forecasts, sterilization cases should increase from 171 million to 254 million by 2000; In other words, a 49% increase. Similarly, the increase in IUD cases increased from 93 million to 125 million or 34% by 2000, and the use of pills increased from 46 million to 75 million users or 64%. Also, other cases increased from 23 million to 35 million or 54% increase by the year 2000 and injection cases increased from 12 million to 21 million or 71% by the year 2000. Although many countries have achieved many of these goals by 2000, they have not been able to achieve 100% of their goals by then. This shortcoming and negligence have created many demographic problems for such societies in the new century. In order to realize family planning programs and achieve controlled fertility, demographic culture must be created in society in its various forms; That is, literacy, education, orientation to the mental forms of individuals, propaganda and enlightenment must be done to a large extent so that new demographic policies can be implemented in society. However, many countries in the Middle East and Africa in general still have a long way to go in this regard. In other words, in order to achieve demographic ideals, the realization of a kind of cultural revolution is inevitable.

Socio-cultural barriers to family planning

The success of family planning programs in any society depends on socio-cultural conditions, population participation, their cooperation and general acceptance. Any success in this field requires the cultural and social readiness of the target community. Use of your family planning programs depends on access to family planning services and information. Developing countries in recent decades, especially in urban areas, have become familiar with different methods of family planning. However, many people in rural areas are still less receptive to birth control methods, largely because of their specific cultural and social conditions. However, in many cases the success of these programs in rural areas has not been as significant due to cultural and social barriers. From a sociological point of view, the prerequisite for the public use of family planning programs is a kind of socio-cultural revolution, in the sense that cultural and social contexts must be provided in advance, so that different sections of a society can use family planning programs.

Factors such as age at marriage, educational conditions (literacy), low social and cultural status of members of society and the like, are all considered as obstacles to the use of family planning programs, and changing such criteria themselves requires structural, social and Is cultural in society. Likewise, the participation of both men and women in the use of their prevention tools depends on the socio-cultural development of men and women. It is also important to note that in traditional societies, men also welcome family planning programs (family planning methods) to a lesser extent. Many intellectual frameworks, cultural and social taboos, and the like, create such conditions. From a demographic and family health perspective, cooperation and participation of both sexes (i.e, both men and women) are essential to the success of family planning programs. Any lack of cooperation on the part of one party delays the success of family planning programs. The expansion of family planning programs is usually pursued for two purposes:

a) The distance between children that guarantees the health of mother and child.

b) Strengthening the sense of responsibility in parents means that fewer children provide more opportunities to care for their children.

Since for the poor social strata of society the main purpose of marriage is to have children, from a socio-cultural point of view, it is not easy to distinguish between the two. Likewise, given the limited resources, social security, and support of the elderly, having many children is a value in developing societies, and acts as a sociocultural barrier to family planning programs. Therefore, in order to remove cultural and social barriers, family planning programs, educational investments should be made, as well as the social security network and support for the elderly as much as possible. Such measures directly and indirectly change the attitudes of people in the community towards family planning programs. Countries such as South Korea have consistently supported family planning programs from 1961 to the end of the century, when women averaged only $ 81 a year in 1961. Children were born, until 1999, when the country’s gross domestic product increased to about $ 10,550 per year, and the total fertility rate (average child per woman fell to 1.65 children. During this 40-year period, Korea The South has used a variety of different methods and methods in cultural, social and psychological formats, and has achieved such success that it should be used as a model by other developing nations.

It is also noteworthy that following research in various parts of developing societies, many women aged 40-35 are less interested and believe in large families in their late reproductive years. They believe that in such large families, members do not even get a chance to eat (enough food). Population sociologists and family planning planners believe that the experiences and theories of these population age groups should be used to motivate younger generations of society; That is, by connecting the (higher) age groups with the younger age groups in society, many goals related to family planning can be achieved. According to research, in many parts of Latin America, many women have a negative attitude towards the side effects of chemicals (prevention). Lack of information and unfamiliarity with different methods, cultural poverty, etc. have provided the ground for such conditions.

One of the main reasons for women’s non-participation in family planning programs is women’s illiteracy. Hence, many governments today have considered and acted on the literacy of the female population as a prerequisite for any development planning, especially a family planning program. Men also express their views on long distances in these societies as follows: Long distances between children weaken women. Ethical barriers also provide such conditions, which means that women are less likely to welcome family planning programs. Research in many Third World societies has confirmed the confirmation of a calendar method or rhythm (the period of active and inactive fertility within a month). Many women, especially in Third World societies, have been able to use this method (calendar method) to some extent to create the necessary distance in their childbearing.

Although there are many cultural and social barriers to family planning programs, at the same time, religious centers such as mosques, churches, temples, etc. can provide better guidance and influence people’s attitudes toward family planning programs. Collectively, leadership and counseling have an undeniable effect on the introduction and acceptance of different methods of family planning. Thus, as far as Third World societies are concerned, such institutions need to be more active in societies, and positively change the attitudes of individuals and members of society towards family planning programs. This mechanism or method has been proven in many Latin American and other Third World societies; That is, in this way, socio-cultural barriers to family planning programs can be reduced to a minimum.


Fertility as one of the major demographic flows plays a decisive role in how the economic and social development of societies at the micro and macro levels. In the discussion of population change, the sociology of fertility is of great importance. Likewise, experience has shown that fertility changes play a greater role in population size than changes in mortality. Also, economic models based on “intellectual childbirth” are closely related to family sociology. The reproductive system plays an intermediary role between the social structure and the development of societies. Technology, on the one hand, reduces mortality, but on the other hand, increases the rate of processing and reduces fertility through the availability of prevention and modernization technology (modernization of the family structure, as Esterlin in 1967 argued that the general form of the relationship between population and economic growth takes place through social and political coordination and planning and systematic changes in these structures, which in turn lead to economic development.

To the question of whether lowering the fertility process will solve all the world’s problems, many economics and social development scientists answer in the affirmative. If countries are poor and at the same time their population is growing rapidly, the simplest solution to their problem is to save them from the crisis of their population growth. Even in response to the crisis and the problem of illegal immigration, those countries (first immigrant countries) are notified to reduce their general fertility. The definition of fertility states: Fertility refers to the number of children that women give birth to. Hence, referring to a society with high fertility, we are referring to people whose majority of women have many children, while a society of low fertility is a society in which the majority of women have fewer children. Likewise, naturally, some women in societies with high fertility have fewer children and vice versa, which itself is due to many political, cultural, social, economic and .... factors. Apart from these factors, fertility is composed of two parts: biological and social. Its biological component refers to fertility, and the second part is the result of the social environment in which people live.

Many countries and societies, by addressing the issue of population and reducing their fertility, have also improved other indicators related to GDP, education, nutrition and calorie per capita food, health, average age of marriage, etc. In a way, the resulting indicators themselves guarantee the improvement and regulation of fertility in those communities. In general, such a trend is relatively a reflection of the development of the foot or 17 in those communities. The legal age of marriage and the age at which marriage actually takes place, itself is affected by various social, economic, cultural and even political conditions in a society, has a great impact on the birth system and ultimately the population growth in that society. According to statistical findings, the legal age of marriage in 1990 was 13 years for Iranian girls and 15 years for boys, while in the same year it was 20 years for Chinese girls and 22 for boys. Such age ranges in the same year left an average of 4.7 children for Iranian women and 2.3 children for Chinese women. In general, one of the ways to achieve reasonable population growth, if possible, is to raise the average age of marriage, which should be given special attention. From a demographic point of view, such a process is itself a key and a tool for achieving development.

The nature of fertility

As has been pointed out so far, fertility is essentially a biological flow. Although its flow is largely influenced by social, cultural, and customs norms, its physiological basis is almost universal. Differences in fertility levels are largely influenced by social norms in countries and even in different regions of a country. Also, the following physiological factors are effective in determining fertility, namely:

Infertility during puberty or adolescence

In a study of 142 different countries, Dr. Raymond Pearl concluded that the signs of puberty or fertility in different parts of the world are affected by different environmental conditions, and usually start for girls between the ages of 13 and 17. It stops at the age of 49-44. According to another study, over the last 100 years, the age of onset of puberty has decreased for many European countries and has now stopped at the age of 13. This change is due to environmental factors. The legalization of abortion in some societies has reduced population growth in those societies. These countries include some industrial societies in Eastern and Western Europe, such as Hungary, the Netherlands, and so on. In the 1960s, there was a strong emphasis on the birth rate and its effect on population growth, but in Third World societies, declining mortality due to health advances and, consequently, declining birth rates have led to population explosions in those societies. That in a population flow, that is, births and deaths, both must be proportional to each other; That is, where mortality decreases, birth control must necessarily be performed.

Infertility or infertility after childbirth

Under the influence of various conditions, including climatic conditions in different places, after the birth of a child is delayed between 3 months to 3 years of the next birth (next birth); That is, fertility does not occur. Also, conditions such as breastfeeding, etc. are effective in this regard. In communities like India where breastfeeding is common, this period of stopping is longer. According to research, 82% of rural women in India find their menstrual cycle after having a child after one year, while this trend resumes for Belgian women after 6 months. Hence, the interval between two births for Indian women is 34 to 36 months.

Primary infertility

This type of infertility refers to infertility that occurs in marriages under the age of 15 and 25 and older. Usually in marriages under the age of 15, fertility is sometimes delayed by up to 6 years.

Loss of reproduction capability

Loss of production refers to the condition in which abortion occurs. Cases of stillbirth are also called fertility loss. In the words of the “shot bourgeoisie”: about 30% of pregnancies lead to a loss of production.

According to a study by Robert Potter in a village in Punjab, India, since 1765 pregnancies, the fertility loss has been around 136 per thousand. In some societies, mothers suffer from physical problems and sometimes death due to the birth of a stillborn baby. The maternal mortality rate in this type of community is estimated at 100 per 100,000 cases. That is, for every 100,000 births of a baby, 100 mothers die. Factors affecting marriage and fertility

a. The age of entering the marital period

b. Singleness and perpetual loneliness - In such circumstances, some women never enter into married life.

c. Conditions that follow divorce and separation.

d. Voluntary resignation.

e. Voluntary resignation due to disability, illness, unavoidable and temporary separations.

f. Using mechanical or chemical means of prevention.

The age factor has an effective role in reducing the birth rate. In this regard, the social researcher.

Agarwala population: Believes that if the age of marriage in India is raised to 19 years, between 30 and 1991, about 30% of births should be reduced.

In demography, the issue of voluntary withdrawal in relation to intercourse is raised. This issue has been mentioned in different cultures under different titles. For example, among Hindus from the beginning of Aryan culture onwards, abstinence from marriage until the age of 25 is recommended, which is called voluntary withdrawal. Between different religions, the prohibition of communication in different cultural-religious aspects has been recommended. In Hindu culture there is such a ban for 80 to 100 days a year. Conversely, because the ban is lower among Muslims, population growth in these communities is higher than among Hindus. However, due to the prohibitions in the holy books of some religions such as Christianity, India, etc., but today the effect of these prohibitions has gradually diminished. In India, for example, many taboos have lost their original importance. Sterilization and the use of other preventive devices, including a series of medical surgeries and the use of physical devices, etc., are associated with the closure of tubes in many communities.

Methods of contraception

In order to prevent recurrent pregnancies and deliveries using new technology and physical and chemical means, the following conventional methods can be used to prevent pregnancy, ie:

a) Tablets

b) condom

c) IUD (intrauterine device)

d) Closing the tube in a woman (tubectomy)

e) Closing the tube in a man (vasectomy)

f) Injectable ampoules

g) Implants (Norplant)

h) Natural method

In addition to the above devices, fertility can be prevented by observing physical reactions during the month naturally and according to the following calendar. 5 monthly fertility cycle and ... in order of day

Days 1 to 4 - Days 5 to 9 - Days 10 to 18 - Days 19 to 28 - Days 1 to 4 (Menstruation) (Safe Period) (Fertility Period) (Safe Period) (Menstruation)

Abortion is also one of the methods of contraception. This method was religiously banned and condemned in most societies until recently but following the industrial development and social changes in different societies in the present era, this method is used to some extent in some societies freely or semi-freely. Taken. It is noteworthy that this method is currently banned in many societies, even industrial societies. Family size norms are constantly changing under the influence of new industrial and economic conditions. Likewise, most religions, although they have had a serious and direct impact on fertility in the past, have changed their policies on fertility methods under the influence of new socio-economic conditions. Most religions have generally recommended high fertility since ancient times. For example, in Hinduism and among Hindus, the blessing of eight boys at the time of marriage of a girl has been discussed. Religions have generally been in favor of strengthening and increasing their followers, but such thinking and norms are changing. Changes in molds in industrial societies have also led to changes in the Third World; So that its reflection is evident in “Tharam” or the standard of a family of two children in India and one child in China.


The present article concludes that physicians today are in need of population science in order to better decide and make plans. Due to global overpopulation, increasing food needs, increasing urban population, changing/enhancing expectations and social change in general physicians and otolaryngologists need to know more of the roots of population disorders. Such a cognition could be attained through population science and population planning. As the number of families/households are ever increasing, followed by more childbirths who will be responsible for continuing the fertility cycle in the years to come, physicians are highly responsible. They can mutually help the statisticians in any country. But, since long time back, their professionalism kept them away of family planning literature, and population dynamics.


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