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ISSN: 2637-6695

Lupine Online Journal of Nursing & Health care

Research Article(ISSN: 2637-6695)

Strategy for the Management of History Learning in Pedagogical Race Students Volume 2 - Issue 4

Edisbel Maceo Alvarez1*, Rosángela Caicedo Quiroz2 and Wilmer Quiala1

  • 1University of oriente in Santiago de Cuba, Cuba
  • 2Bolivarian Higher Technological Institute, Guayaquil, Ecuador

Received: January 17, 2020;  Published: January 29, 2020

Corresponding author: Edisbel Maceo Alvarez, University of oriente in Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

DOI: 10.32474/LOJNHC.2020.02.000143

Abstract PDF


Education as a social process takes place under specific historical conditions. One of the essential objectives in teacher training is that they respond to their environment, but be present in this environment, traits of high ethical values, and to abide by the norms of coexistence in the various contexts. The authors propose a strategy for the management of history learning in students of pedagogical careers Considering the limitations that exist today in the functions of the history teacher, responsible for the conduct of the main space or scenario where the first lights of knowledge are seen, it is necessary to consider a strategy that, from a learning project, improves its teaching. The use of the systemic-structural method was present in the process of explanation and argumentation of the strategy taking into account the systemic and hierarchical nature of the components of the strategy.


The education like social process, are developed under concrete historical conditions. One of the essential objectives in the formation of educational is that they respond to their environment, but that it is present in this, features of high ethical values, and accept the norms of coexistence in the diverse contexts. The authors propose a strategy for the administration of the learning of History in the students of the pedagogic careers Considering the limitations that today exists in the functions of the educational one of History, responsible for the conduction of the main space or scenario where they see each other the first lights of the knowledge, it is necessary to think about a strategy that, starting from a learning project, improve its teaching. The use of the systemic methodstructural it was present in the explanation process and argument of the strategy keeping in mind the systemic and nested character of the components of the same one.

Keywords: Strategy; Learning History Teaching; Strategies; Learning; Learning Strategies


In addressing the learning teaching process of History and the management of students in this, inadequacies have been identified when it is considered a process in which reproduction predominates, a mechanical, repetitive and formal thinking, in its capacity as a science of questions about knowledge, existence, reason, in which they try little and achieve little work that solves proposed professional problems. Denoting insufficient mastery of one’s own skills to appropriate the content of this subject, it generates a lack of meaning for students, therefore, the educational intention to facilitate the rational and systematic construction of explanations of historical-social reality, nor an understanding that fosters the transformative participation of the educating in social life is not achieved. Being the learning process of History, a process in which the management of history must contribute to manage the knowledge of the students, solve the professional problems raised, foresee and project the progress of it, orienting increasing reflective dominance over this science, its problems and its relations with the current society.

Materials and Methods

The contextual data where the present research originates and the results of the exploratory study reflect, in this sense, the need to develop a Strategy for the management of learning in the subject History that contributes to the pedagogical vocational training of students pursuing pedagogical careers in conducting a detailed review of the conceptualization of the term strategy, important elements to consider in the development of the proposed learning strategy are identified in the definitions discussed. In the [1] it refers that the word strategy is derived from the Greek strategy, it constitutes the development of directing military operations and that it has now also become the joint approach of the guidelines to be followed at each of the phases of a process. This is understood to guide, orient towards a purpose at every moment of the activity. It is understood then that strategies should not be rigid, but instruments that can be modified, precise, and can be constantly delimited, from the changes that are being operated on in the object of transformation. It is essential to evaluate the results and the Process to make decisions such as follow, correct or roll back. [2], states that the strategy “is the fundamental conception and orientation that the educational teaching process adopts for the fulfillment of its objectives. It refers to the fundamental lines for the conception, orientation, implementation and control of instruction and education in a curricular context” (p.21). In this sense, the strategies have an immediacy that links them with daily life, they also have characteristics that unite them with the past, because of needs, problems previously originating in the drainage of time and on the basis of them propose ways to address it to achieve the necessary changes. In general, the strategies analyzed coincide in the possession of common traits: they start from a real problem diagnosed, are contextual, therefore, flexible, have a goal to fulfill, they are carried out through orderly and planned actions.

According to [3] the use of a strategy always involves:

a) Planning and control of the execution, which implies the ability to reflect on the process of solving the task or on the learning itself and regulate it accordingly.
b) Selective use of the very resources and capabilities available, which in turn implies the possibility of making decisions regarding what the procedures to be used, their sequence, etc. This will also require the possibility of reflecting and using the metadata available (knowledge of the cognitive processes themselves, on the characteristics of the tasks, and on the strategies that can be implemented in each case).
c) A group of habits, skills and procedures to apply according to the demands of the goal to be achieved, also called technical mastery.

Teaching and learning strategies include:

a) Teaching strategies are experiences or conditions that the teacher creates to encourage students to learn. Learning strategies are procedures, a set of actions, that the student acquires and uses intentionally to learn significantly and solve problems and demands of the learning teaching process.
b) Today, the idea that active learning necessarily involves the acquisition, production and application of effective strategies to learn and solve problems that arise in everyday practice is increasingly recognized.
c) For many authors, the acquisition of strategies is implicit in the conception of learning.
d) “Learning means not only acquiring knowledge, but also learning to find the means that lead to problem solving selecting information, choosing media and pathways, highlighting hypotheses, sorting and relating data, etc. This approach to learning involves a shift in teaching, as it would require teaching not only content or data, but strategies to learn and use them” [4].
e) In this way, the teacher must adopt flexible positions, according to the needs and intentions of the students, that allow them to attend to their different styles and rhythms of learning.
f) For [5], strategic action in the face of a learning teaching activity implies being able to make conscious decisions to regulate the conditions that define the activity in question and thus achieve the objective pursued.
g) In this sense, teaching learning strategies in the history subject involves teaching the student to consciously decide the acts he performs, teaching him to consciously modify his performance when oriented towards a goal sought and teaching him to evaluate this process.

Teaching learning strategies from the History subject means that students should:

a. Reflect on their own way of learning History, analyzing the operations and mental decisions they make, in order to improve the cognitive processes, they put into action.
b. Learn to know each other better, and identify your difficulties, skills and preferences when learning to build your own cognitive identity.
c. Dialogue internally, activating previous knowledge about historical content to be treated and related to new information.
d. Learn to be intentional and proactive when they learn and respond to the demands of their training.
e. It means for the teacher.
f. Reflect on your own way of planning, presenting and evaluating the different contents of History.
g. Consciously reconstruct meanings as to what you should or should not teach; it is a recognition of skills and deficiencies as a teacher that encourages changes that constitute improvements in their professional performance.
h. Facilitate the task, explaining educational intentions, which leads to a process of self-reflection.
i. Learn to teach better, striving to intrinsically motivate your students, so that they gain their understanding of the need to become independent in solving professional problems, to raise the quality of their training.

Learning strategies are behaviors or thoughts that make learning easier. These strategies range from simple study skills, such as the underlining of the main idea, to complex thought processes such as using analogies to relate prior knowledge to new information allow the participation of the student as the subject of their learning, rather than as an object and therefore the intentional use of their personal resources based on the acquisition of new content, habits, skills and capacities in cognitive activity; as well as the development of daily activities with a thoughtful and premeditative thought in decision-making and in the way of proceeding; with this learning becomes easier, fast, enjoyable, selfdirected, and difficult to new situations. They comprise the plan deliberately designed with the goal of achieving a particular goal, through a set of actions that is executed in a controlled manner. They achieve the full set of processes, actions and activities that students can intentionally deploy to support and improve their learning. They are therefore made up of that knowledge, procedures that are dominating throughout their activity and that allows them to face their learning effectively [3]. Learning strategies are a fundamental skill to be achieved, developed and employed by students in their cognitive process. Their fundamental purpose is to train autonomous students in the management of their own historical learning process: students who are able to learn effectively, making the most of their efforts when undertaking the tasks of being able to self-regulate this process of personal construction, so that they can, on the one hand, positively change and modify deficiencies, inadequate procedures that they implement when learning and, on the other hand, increase and maximize those positive learning aspects and procedures, in order to qualitatively and quantitatively improve their learning. It may seem obvious, that the teacher’s behavior has a significant influence on how students are studied; however, this happens even if the teacher does not offer explicit recommendations or advice on how they should study.

Among the many aspects of any teacher’s behavior that influence how students cope with learning and contribute to the acquisition of learning strategies, the following can be noted:

a. The way it presents the themes and the affective climate it promotes.
b. The messages you give before, during and after teaching tasks and that affect the learning goals and the assessment of the subject.
c. Explain the relationships between what is taught and how it is taught, promoting learning models about how to learn the subject and what you can do with what has been learned on the basis of an efficient motivation in the school.
d. How to act when dealing with teaching tasks.
e. The way to present and structure the teaching tasks and the type of questions that it raises.
f. Promote reflection on the processes of thought to solve learning activities, taking into account the characteristics or conditions in which it occurs.
g. The modes of interaction that favors the learning process.
h. Empower evaluation situations that penetrate the process and not only the result of what has been learned.

Today it is a necessity for the teacher who teaches History to intervene in the learning strategy, who is interested in what they are for and under what situations they should be used, for which a clear conscience is needed of the teacher to make his way of being more flexible think and act, adapting them to the demands of perceptive - cognitive and affective - volitively style of their students. For this to happen the teacher must reflect on how he learns himself, to understand how his students learn and to contribute to students acquire strategic learning procedures. In order to appropriate the student of learning strategies for learning management in History, the teacher must take into account the following budgets:

a. To give guiding bases of action, in a process that at first is regulated by the teacher that explicit the learning strategy to follow.
b. The learning strategy is shared with the student through dialogue and discussion of its nature, the procedures to follow, the conditions under which it is useful and under which it is not effective.
c. Repeated application of learning strategies with small variations (increasingly less assisted by the teacher) and the analysis of errors and successes, contributes to students acquire procedures to regulate their decisions until they achieve their self-regulation.

To achieve the proper management of learning in the subject of History it is necessary for students to achieve:

a. Identify the essentials.
b. Critically analyze and evaluate the various sources of historical information.
c. Present historical knowledge organized.
d. Develop skills to sign, summarize, analyze, synthesize.
e. Establish the sources consulted bibliographic.
f. Communicate the result of the work done, defend your views, perform historiographic analysis.
Hence, it can conclude that the strategy:
a. It is designed to solve professional practice problems and overcome difficulties with time optimization.
b. Allows to project a qualitative change in the process from eliminating the contradictions between the current state and the desired one.
c. It involves a planning process in which the establishment of sequences of actions oriented towards the aim of being carried out occurs, which does not mean a single course of them, in which the use of the Problem-Based Method is proposed.
d. It is dialectically interrelated in a global plan between the objectives or objectives pursued and the methodology for achieving them.
e. It is characterized by the close relationship between the different stages that make up it, hence its systemic character [6].

From the previous budgets, it is assumed that learning strategies will be made up of those knowledge and procedures, which students dominate throughout their activity, and that allow them to face their learning efficiently. They therefore include the entire set of processes, actions and activities that they can intentionally deploy to support and improve their learning:

a. A level of development of certain psychological processes involved in the learning activity of History.
b. Previous knowledge of the subject History.
c. A basic mastery of a system of specific habits and skills (typical of the subject History) and general (often called general thinking skills).
d. Procedures to support historical learning.
e. Knowledge about their own cognitive and historical learning processes (historical meta-knowledge) and the possibility and willingness to control them.
f. Development of skills, professional skills and logical thinking in the resolution of professional problems.
g. Taking dyed in its action that denotes a professional pedagogical and citizen action.

The work of the teacher in the proposed strategy involves motivating, guiding, facilitating and mediating the learning of history in students, emphasizing the ability to learn to learn to do so autonomously, in a way that allows them to solve the complex situations proposed since teaching.


A learning strategy is proposed to manage historical learning [7].

General objective

To contribute to the development of historical learning management in students of pedagogical careers.

Actors from strategy

The main actors of the strategy are the teachers and students, the first have the function of directing the learning process for the management of historical learning and the latter are the leading actors of this management process, taking over historical content, with the maximum possible independence.

The criteria of this learning are

Promote integral development, the transition from dependence to in deptness and self-regulation, develop capacity to realize learning throughout life.

The dimensions of this tutorial are:

a) Productive and creative intellectual activity where cognitive meta reflection, metacognitive regulation and willingness to active, self-regulating learning are given.
b) Significance of learning, which is the tendency to form feelings, attitudes and values.
c) The intrinsic motivation to learn, the system of selfassessments and positive expectations regarding learning.
The overall structure of the strategy is as follows: Initial diagnosis, planning, execution and evaluation.

Initial diagnosis

Objective: To determine the strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities related to the historical learning management process of sedagogic career students.


i. Selection and/or development of instruments for the realization of the diagnosis.
ii. Application of the selected instruments to those involved in the strategy.
iii. Analysis of the main results obtained.


Objective: Plan pedagogical professional problems so that students can obtain, process, operate and communicate historical knowledge in a planned, independent, flexible, thoughtful and responsible way.


i. Determine the integrative objectives of the course program where the strategy will be realized based on the development of learning management. Determine teaching methods aimed at fostering questioning, seeking attitude, information processing, recognizing one’s identity, learning to self-regulate, developing critical thinking, and solving problems.
ii. Develop teaching resources to emphasize the aspects of interaction and cooperation of the learning teaching process, information search, research and exploration tasks. Resources are required that, being student-centered, have the flexibility to conform to the learning conditions, taking into account the particularities of each student and the social and cultural context in which they operate. This necessarily leads to the interaction of teachers.
iii. Design integrative tasks, in which students must manage learning with independence, integrity and responsibility.
In correspondence with the purposes of the learning management strategy, specific teaching tasks are proposed:

i. To guide, motivate and ensure conditions: Its essential objective is to achieve the positive disposition necessary to manage learning and contribute to the achievement of the objective of value for situations related to career, life, among others, where certain essential values are revealed in the management of historical learning. These make it easier for students to locate sources of information, use various actions and tools for inquiry, collection of historical information, personal experiences and experiences, etc.
ii. Call for the processing of historical knowledge: It allows students to make the analyses, organize and compare the results of historical knowledge obtained, in correspondence with the needs of historical learning, to achieve the understanding of information and respond to the challenges of the specific teaching situation.
iii. Stimulation to operate with historical knowledge: Its essential objective is for students to integrate, generalize, apply and transfer historical knowledge and developed values, based on their personological resources and the logic of related processes or activities. Also, use historical knowledge gained and processed in solving professional problems.
iv. Demand to communicate historical knowledge: Its objective is to get students to exchange ideas, opinions and in general the knowledge obtained, the information processed and the process of operating with historical learning, by solving a complex professional problem raised.

Specific tasks meet the following requirements:

a) Promote inquiry, criticism, reflection, should include situations where students can make explicit the meanings of historical concepts and processes, depending on the treatment from various bibliographies and the variety of records used to solve the pedagogical professional problem.
b) Promote the reflection and intellectual effort of each student, through the interaction student-student, studentteacher, student-group in a communicative environment.
c) Allows the teacher to follow up on the training and development of skills and capacities, controlled by a systemic and systematic evaluation.


Objective: Solve pedagogical professional problems so that students can communicate historical knowledge with a high degree of independence.


i. Guide the execution of specific learning tasks.
ii. Control the resolution of the professional problems raised.

In correspondence with the stages of the learning management strategy; execution has as a common thread the student’s confrontation with historical content, to solve professional problems. At this stage the teacher and the students, the students interact with each other and all of these with the processes that occur in the social environment through the problem, creating the conditions conducive to the training and development of skills and capabilities to manage the learning of history. Firstly, special attention should be paid to the motivational-axiological orientation for the obtaining of historical knowledge by students, which is in correspondence with the motivation, this is the moment of the process aimed at fostering openness and availability to manage knowledge, with professional problems that enhance the active willingness needed to manage historical knowledge and contribute to the achievement of valuable orientation towards situations related to career, life, among others, where certain essential values in learning management are revealed. By solving professional problems, the student locates the sources of information, uses various strategies and tools of inquiry, collects information, experiences, experiences, etc., to recover historical knowledge necessary to solve this task. It shows, as a regular basis, the relationship between objective-object-method, when specifying in what is pursued? and how do I achieve? motivate students by that knowledge.

Then the processing of historical knowledge, it contemplates the actions of the teacher and students to ensure the understanding of knowledge and achieve the metacognitive reflection necessary for learning by solving problems Professionals proposed by the teacher allow the student to analyze, organize and compare the results of historical knowledge obtained, to achieve the understanding of information and knowledge and respond to the challenges of knowledge. In the learning strategy, the learning strategy plays an important role because the process must be as productive as possible. The tasks are aimed at making the student face the solution of professional problems, enabling the student to operate with the necessary knowledge to solve them consciously the student does not solve the problem alone, but interacts with his groupmates and his teachers, who do not contribute to finding the solution, but to stimulate the consultation of the sources of historical knowledge. The tasks proposed for this purpose, allow the student to know how to apply what he learned to nue vas situations.

To operate with concepts, more ediante professional problems that promote the communication of historical knowledge, students make exchanges of ideas, thoughts, opinions and in general the knowledge obtained, the information processed and the process of operating with the historical knowledge obtained. Orientation is conceived as an accompaniment process where students are learned and taught to think, improving the skills of logical thinking, is a mechanism for students to carry out the process of managing history learning with as few difficulties as possible. By guiding the execution of specific learning tasks, the student is trained to know himself and his medium, his skills, limitations and to adapt to the conditions proposed by the teacher, who develop study cognitively allowing for greater development of skills and abilities. It allows them to choose with intelligence from several proposed alternatives. It is vitally important to understand the need for good guidance to students by teachers, because this is reversed in help and development of skills and abilities thus fulfilling a role of professional guidance and guidance. The teacher should use methods that guide the student to properly sort ideas, to use vocabulary, concepts and definitions correctly, to manifest his ideas safely and in concrete ways. It should stimulate the way of properly expressing the message for students, expressing in their words the assessment of the results of the task. At this time the conversation or dialogue established between students with the teacher or between the students is considered an indispensable method in terms of raising the levels of independence. It promotes the independent search for knowledge, which allows it to reach the essence of concepts, fact or phenomenon, should stimulate the search for information in other sources, which promote the development of thoughtful thinking during the search for knowledge, to take positions, locate, process, organize, assume criteria, make decisions and communicate historical information.

It is a question of the student noticing the internal nature, the logic of events in the orientation process, acquiring the tools of knowledge and resources of discovery, reasoning, and not fostering the culture of repetition textbook mechanics or another absolute source, but encourage the independence of judgments. Stimulate, test ideas and criteria, always in an environment of flexible cooperation. In the development of tasks, it should be intended for the student to analyze what he did, how he did it, what allowed him success, what he was wrong about, how he can eliminate his mistakes, how he can seek new ways to solve the problems raised, that defends his criteria in the collective, reaffirms them, deepens or modifies them, that he self-controls and values his results and forms of action, as well as those of his collective becoming a process of control of compliance.

During the process of guiding specific tasks you should:

a) To promote an affective link to the activity, making students live it as useful, necessary and interesting.
b) Encourage participation, the eagerness to know, deepen, expand, and apply knowledge.
c) Encourage the realization of stable violative efforts through the approach through the approach of new goals and demands.
d) Stimulate interest in the development and selfdevelopment of personality.
e) Develop an interest in collaboration and mutual support among the students participating in the activity.
f) Ensure the student’s understanding of the task prior to execution.
Specify the objectives to be achieved, which implies:
a) Familiarization with the task. Exploration and prior recognition (what you know and what to know).
b) Analysis of the task conditions (data and information that

it has; product or result to be obtained).
c) Procedures and possible strategies for solving tasks.
d) Plan the steps to follow in line with the expected results.

It controls the activity carried out by the students, using their own methods and procedures the acquisition of independence when executing the different tasks, which prepares them to execute the methods that are only necessary to use to solve new, more difficult problems, reaching the levels of assimilation of a creative nature, controlling the changes that have been made systematically in the development of the model concreted in the proposed objectives, which allows to assess the effectiveness of the proposed planning model to improve the teaching of history. In the fulfillment of this action, it is carried through a control of the learning process by the teacher, to the control of the process by the students, and, therefore, leads to the development of attitudes, motivations, as well as the necessary tools for the mastery of what is called learning to learn, and learning to grow permanently.

In order to carry out a good control, it is possible to ensure the implementation of the actions envisaged at the orientation stage, which involves addressing:

i. That the results correspond to the requirements of the task.
ii. That the student is able to explain the procedures used, argue their positions, defend their views.
iii. What the student can do on his own and offer the help only to the precise extent.
iv. In addition, the control process must:
v. Check that students know and know how to apply procedures to control and evaluate.
vi. Train students in the use of criteria, algorithms or models of requirements for the assessment and self-assessment of both the results and the process of the activity.
vii. Check if the student, based on the results of the control, is able to make changes to the strategy used.
viii. To enable students to consciously assess their inadequacies and to strive to overcome them.


Objectives: To assess the quality of the management of the historical learning of students.


i. Analyze the performance of students during the resolution of proposed professional problems.
ii. Analyze the results achieved in relation to historical learning.
iii. Assess the quality of management from the communication of historical learning.

To analyze the actions of students, it is necessary to observe their behavior carefully, which can provide quantitative data, by controlling their regular behavior, frequency with which he performs specific teaching tasks, etc. This action allows to know how each student is involved in the process of solving the problems proposed by the teacher, how the group is organized, what role the leaders play, how training is favored and the strengthening of values such as collectivism, solidarity, responsibility and honesty in the outcome. This action enhances the verification of the axiological and affective motivational sphere, provided that it is observed whether they develop the actions of learning with greater or lesser degree of optimism and joy, or on the contrary if they act only by the pressure of the group or relatives. The evaluation action of the axiological sphere guarantees the necessary reflection on the possibility and feasibility of this type of didactic proposal, which is why the teacher must be very attentive to the concrete results that they achieve in the subject, so compare whether it favored historical learning, but in a unique way whether that learning was incorporated into the modes of professional performance of the career they study and how this type of activity can be done to promote the educational work of the future teacher. In order to carry out a systematized assessment, the teacher must be flexible enough to adapt to the changes and objective and subjective conditions. These evaluations should project retrospective self-assessment and evaluation mechanisms. To compare the student’s performance during their actions when applying learning strategies. The evaluation of the tasks has an integrative and personological character, these are evaluated, through performance, which shows the result achieved and the process followed to solve the proposed professional problems. It is intended to control and value it; it is not systemic or partial, but quite the opposite, it is also a process that is part of the other stages.


The strategy for the management of history learning in students of pedagogical careers, means to evaluate the results of this process, one of which is the training and development of historical learning management, coupled with the qualitative transformation of the personality of the professional future of education. This allows us to appreciate if the student learned to do something new, if he integrated knowledge, mastered thought procedures, aroused new interests and feelings, mobilized his potential for learning management etc., but also to assess the process itself, its progress and setbacks and this in turn means assessing the extent to which they have intervened in achieving these results, the different dynamic elements that have shaped it, the objective, the content methods and problems Professional.

Therefore, when evaluating the results obtained by students you should:

a) To evaluate not only the results but also the process of obtaining them and the efforts made.
b) Take advantage of the error as a starting point for reflection and personal growth.
c) Address individual differences.

The strategy had an application in the pedagogical career of Geography Biology at the University of the Orient in Santiago de Cuba, being able to find positive results and the need to continue a process of generalization in other careers. Analyzing the actions of students in solving proposed professional problems, it was revealed that in practice there was a substantial change in relation to the traditional method of learning, by critically analyzing the various sources knowledge consulted, discussed and shared in the group; the information they have selected with the one they already had and re-examine the problem to identify new information needs.
It is evident that the results achieved in relation to historical learning offer procedures and methods for the direction of independent work; it promotes the exchange of experiences, the construction and reconstruction of historical knowledge, cooperation, the socialization of historical information is seen from a metacognitive conception, which contributes to the selfpreparation and self-management of historical learning.


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