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ISSN: 2641-1725

LOJ Medical Sciences

Mini Review(ISSN: 2641-1725)

High incidence of Brucella epididymo-orchitis in Ardabil, Iran Volume 1 - Issue 3

Hamed Mohseni Rad*

  • Urology Nephrology Research Center (UNRC), Shahid Labbafinedzhad Hospital, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Iran

Received: August 27, 2018;   Published: August 31, 2018

*Corresponding author: Hamed Mohseni Rad, Urology Nephrology Research Center (UNRC), Shahid Labbafinedzhad Hospital, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 09821, Iran

DOI: 10.32474/LOJMS.2018.01.000115

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Abstract

Brucella is a Gram-negative facultative intra cellular bacteria that is an important cause of epididymo-orchitis in endemic area like Ardabil, Iran. The incidence of brucellosis in Ardabil is 10-21 in 100,000 population, but brucella epididymoorchitis incidence is unknown .2-20% of brucellosis patients may have epididymoorchitis. Majority of Ardabil people live in rural area concord with domestic animals like sheep, cow and goat. It seems that BEO incidence in Ardabil compared to developed countries or even other provinces of Iran is higher. The incidence of brucella epididymo-orchitis in Ardabil province in Iran is widespread out of prospective. BEO must be important acute scrotal pain differential diagnosis in alike endemic area.

Introduction

Brucella is a Gram-negative facultative intra-cellularbacteria [1] that is an important cause of epididymo-orchitis in endemic area like Ardabil, Iran [2]. The main source of brucellosis is unpasteurized dairy products and men are more affected than girls [3] The incidence of brucellosis in Ardabil is 10-21 in 100,000 population, but brucella epididymoorchitis incidence is unknown [4] 2-20% of brucellosis patients may have epididymoorchitis [5]. Majority of Ardabil people live in rural area concord with domestic animals like sheep, cow and goat. It seems that BEO incidence in Ardabil compared to developed countries or even other provinces of Iran is higher. [6] Although brucella epididymo-orchitis (BEO) is rare manifestation of disease, it should be in mind in acute scrotum youth [7]. BEO patients usually refer to urology office with acute testis pain, swelling, fever and sweeting. Other symptoms may be asthenia, arthralgia, back pain, dysuria, shiver and rash and vomiting. (8) Osteo-articular involvement, spondylitis, sacroiliitis, peripheral arthritis, and hepatitis are possible coexisting illnesses. [9] Rose-Bengal and Wright agglutination tests. Rose-Bengal and Wright agglutination tests always are positive but Coombs test may be negative (10).BEO usually affects testis unilaterally while urine culture is sterile [11].

Conclusion

The incidence of brucella epididymo-orchitis in Ardabil province in Iran is widespread out of prospective. BEO must be important acute scrotal pain differential diagnosis in alike endemic area.

References

  1. OIE (2008) Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals (6th edn.) Chap 2:616-650.
  2. Hossein Esmaeili (2014) Brucellosis in Islamic republic of Iran. J Med Bacteriol 3 (3) 4: pp.47-57.
  3. Roushan MR, Amiri MJ (2013) Update on childhood brucellosis. Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov Apr 8(1): 42-46.
  4. Zeinali M, Shirzadi MR, Haj rasuliha H (2012) National Guideline for Brucellosis Control. Ministry of health and medical education.
  5. Colmenero JD, Reguera JM, Martos F, Sánchez-De Mora D, Delgado Met al. (Baltimore) 1996 Jul 75(4): 195-211.
  6. Najafi N, Ghassemian R, Davoody AR, Tayebi A (2011) An unusual complication of a common endemic disease: clinical and laboratory aspects of patients with brucella epididymoorchitis in the north of Iran. BMC Res Notes 11: 4:286
  7. Tanıdır Y, Gümrah A, Akbal C, Tarcan T (2008) Brucella epidiymoorchitis as the first presenting sign of brucellosis: a case report and review of the literatüre. Marmara Medical Journal 21(1):56-60.
  8. Navarro-Martínez A, Solera J, Corredoira J, Beato JL, Martínez-Alfaro E, et al. (2001) Epididymoorchitis due to Brucella mellitensis: a retrospective study of 59 patients. JClin Infect Dis 33(12): 2017-2022
  9. Corbel MJ, Elberg SS, Cosivi O (2006) Brucellosis in Humans and Animals. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  10. Ayhan Karaköse, Mehmet Bilgehan Yuksel, Özgü Aydoğdu, Aziz Ahmad Hamidi (2013) Epididymoorchitis as the First Finding in Patients with Brucellosis. Adv Urol 2013: 765023.
  11. Özsoy MF, Koçak N, Çavuşlu Ş (1998) Brusella orşiti beşolgu sunumu. Klimik Dergisi 11(3):82-87.
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