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ISSN: 2641-1725

LOJ Medical Sciences

Research Article(ISSN: 2641-1725)

Attention Deficity Hyperactivity Disorder Under Pharmacological Treatment: Prevalence, Treatment Adherence and Comorbidity Volume 5 - Issue 5

Perejón López D1*, Serna Arnaiz MC2, Galvan Santiago L3, Siscart Viladegut J1 and Gasco Serna L4

  • 1Resident Internal Medicine, University of Lleida, Spain
  • 2Associate Professor University of Lleida, Spain
  • 3Pharmacist, Lleida Health Department, Spain
  • 4Master Clinical Psychology, UNIR University, Spain

Received: July 13, 2021   Published: July 29, 2021

*Corresponding author: Perejón López D, Resident Internal Medicine, University of Lleida, Spain


DOI: 10.32474/LOJMS.2021.05.000223

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Abstract

Background: Few studies have analyzed use of or adherence to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) medication over the long term. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of ADHD under treatment in a general population, estimate treatment compliance, and analyze the presence of comorbidities based on the use of concomitant psychotropics.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study of ADHD drugs dispensed in a Spanish healthcare district between 2015 and 2017.

Results: Of the population studied, 0.3% were under pharmacological treatment for ADHD and of these 71.2% were male and 28.8% were female. The most common treatments were methylphenidate (79.7%) and lisdexamfetamine (11%). Five percent of patients were also taking antidepressants, 2.2% anxiolytics, 1.1% hypnotics, and 4.3% antipsychotics. Forty percent of patients had good adherence (defined as an adherence rate of ≥80). Mean ± SD overall adherence was 63% ± 32.8. The rates by age group were 64.8% in children <15 years, 55.1% in adolescents aged 15-19 years, and 65.4% in patients aged ≥20 years. Grouped by sex, adherence was 64.3% in females and 62.2% in males.

Conclusions: Three times as many male as female patients in our series were under pharmacological treatment for ADHD and a low proportion of the patients were taking concomitant psychotropic medication. Mean treatment compliance was two-thirds of the prescribed treatment duration. Male sex and adolescence were associated with the worst adherence rates

Abbreviations: ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; DDD: Defined Daily Dose; MARS: Medication Adherence Rating Scale; MPR: Medication Possession Ratio; ODD: Oppositional Defiant Disorder; SD: Standard Deviation

Abstract| Introduction| Comorbidities| Materials and Methods| Results| Discussiont| Conclusion| Adolescent Boys had the Worst Adherence Rates| References|

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