Background: Few studies have analyzed use of or adherence to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) medication over
the long term. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of ADHD under treatment in a general population, estimate
treatment compliance, and analyze the presence of comorbidities based on the use of concomitant psychotropics.
Methods: Retrospective cohort study of ADHD drugs dispensed in a Spanish healthcare district between 2015 and 2017.
Results: Of the population studied, 0.3% were under pharmacological treatment for ADHD and of these 71.2% were male and
28.8% were female. The most common treatments were methylphenidate (79.7%) and lisdexamfetamine (11%). Five percent of
patients were also taking antidepressants, 2.2% anxiolytics, 1.1% hypnotics, and 4.3% antipsychotics. Forty percent of patients
had good adherence (defined as an adherence rate of ≥80). Mean ± SD overall adherence was 63% ± 32.8. The rates by age group
were 64.8% in children <15 years, 55.1% in adolescents aged 15-19 years, and 65.4% in patients aged ≥20 years. Grouped by sex,
adherence was 64.3% in females and 62.2% in males.
Conclusions: Three times as many male as female patients in our series were under pharmacological treatment for ADHD and a low
proportion of the patients were taking concomitant psychotropic medication. Mean treatment compliance was two-thirds of the
prescribed treatment duration. Male sex and adolescence were associated with the worst adherence rates