*Corresponding author:Ahmed Ash, Department of Civil Engineering Group, Leeds Beckett University, UK
Received: November 01, 2018; Published: November 27, 2018
To view the Full Article Peer-reviewed Article PDF
To produce concrete, cement is an essential material that binds together solid bodies but also is the largest producer of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. Up to 10% of global CO2 emission comes from cement production thus making the sustainability of concrete a major issue that needs addressing. The processes of producing concrete consume heavily on natural resources such as sand, gravel, water, coal and crushed rock, mining of which damages the environment. It is however possible, that energy and cost efficiency can be achieved by reducing on the amount of clinker, and in its place utilizing partial cement replacements/pozzolans that require less process heating and emit fewer levels of carbon dioxide. This study investigates the effectiveness of agro waste ash by-product Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) as an alternative material to replace Portland cement (OPC). Experiments were carried out by supplementing CEM I cement by weight in concrete mixes with POFA at 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% steps at the point of need, with water to cement ratio of 0.5. Results were compared with a control specimen, which was made with 100% cement. The results showed impressive compressive strength, especially at early age; in fact POFA specimens containing 2.5% and 5% POFA replacement displayed greater early compressive strength in comparison to the control, which is similar in behaviour to concrete containing silica fume which is an established partial cement replacement used in high strength applications. The results showed good repeatability and highlight the potential of POFA as an effective pozzolan which could enhance the sustainability and economic aspect of concrete.
Bio chemistryUniversity of Texas Medical Branch, USA
Department of Criminal JusticeLiberty University, USA
Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Kentucky, USA
Department of MedicineGally International Biomedical Research & Consulting LLC, USA
Department of Urbanisation and AgriculturalMontreal university, USA
Oral & Maxillofacial PathologyNew York University, USA
Gastroenterology and HepatologyUniversity of Alabama, UK
Department of MedicineUniversities of Bradford, UK
OncologyCirculogene Theranostics, England
Radiation ChemistryNational University of Mexico, USA
Analytical ChemistryWentworth Institute of Technology, USA
Minimally Invasive SurgeryMercer University school of Medicine, USA
Pediatric DentistryUniversity of Athens , Greece
The annual scholar awards from Lupine Publishers honor a selected number Read More...
We know the financial complexity of Individual read more...
The annual scholar awards from Lupine Publishers honor a selected number read more...