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ISSN: 2641-1652

Current Trends in Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Research Article(ISSN: 2641-1652)

Is there a Significant Difference between the Amount of Order and Discipline Compulsions in Male Athletes and Non-Athletes? Volume 4 - Issue 3

Amir Mohammadamini*

  • Amir Mohammadamini, Department of Sport, Azad Islamic University and Payam Noor University of Mahabad Center, Mahabad, Iran

Received: July 22, 2023;   Published: July 28, 2023

*Corresponding author: Dmitrieva Elena Germanovna, Clinical Pharmacist, Charitable Pharmaceutical Clinic, Russia

DOI: 10.32474/CTGH.2023.04.000188


Abstract PDF


The aim goal of this study is to determine and compare the level of obsessive-compulsive disorder in young male athletes and non-athlete in Mahabad. The type of research is practical and methodically is descriptive survey and of comparative causal. The statistical population of the research is all the young men of Mahabad for comparison obsessive compulsive disorder that from each group 100 people were selected as a sample by a simple random method. The Data collection tool is the Padua Obsessive Compulsive Disorder standard inventory (PPI). Research findings indicate that there is a significant difference between the rate of obsessive- compulsive disorder young men athletes and non-athletes. It was also observed that there was a significant difference between the dimensions of contamination obsessions, order and discipline compulsions, checking compulsions, Obsessive thoughts of harming oneself and others and obsessive thoughts of violence in male athletes and non-athletes. But it was not observed that a significant difference is between the dimensions washing compulsions, obsessive impulses of harming oneself and others and obsessive impulses to steal in male athletes and non-athletes.

Obsessive disorder; obsessive compulsive disorder; practical obsession; athletes; non-athletes


The recognition of those types of neurosis which are specified under the title of obsessive- compulsive disorder has attracted the attention of psychologists, psychiatrists, and researchers to itself. It is said that this disorder has always existed throughout human history and today it has dedicated to itself considerable proportion of neurotics. The continuity and intensity of this disorder sometimes reaches to limit which totally lowers a person’s strength and efficiency and leaves a crippling effect on the patient’s individual and social life. Obsessive - compulsive disorder consists of two parts, obsessions and Compulsions. (Overall lifetime prevalence) they have estimated this disorder at 2/5 percent. (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Research shows that the prevalence rate of this disorder is similar in many different cultures of the world. Although obsessive-compulsive disorder usually begins in adolescence or early adulthood, it may also begin in childhood. The average starting lifetime of men is lower than that of women, that is, it’s between 6 and 15 for men and between 20 and 29 for women. In most cases the onset of disorder is gradual, but in some cases an acute and sudden onset has been observed.

In most people, the course of disorder marks with chronic fluctuation concomitant with intensification of symptoms which are probably related to psychological pressure.(The same source). Obsessive compulsive disorder, despite its low relative prevalence, including very complex and interesting mental disorders which has attracted the attention of psychiatrists since the obsessivecompulsive disorder proposed by different psychiatrists for this disease and its contributing factors in the interim, are baseless empirically and have not yielded any effective treatment. According to the earliest obsessive behavioral theories, the obsession may follow Mowrer’s two - factor theory to the formation and continuity of fear. According to this theory, anxiety is conditioned (such as thoughts or images) with mental events (classical conditioning) and scientific obsessions are formed to reduce the disturbance caused by these thoughts. The passing of time, the obsessive- compulsive ability to reduce anxiety leads to its negative reinforcement.

The mental and physical effort of an individual or a group or a sports team in order to achieve a certain goal can be called sport performance. This is a common definition of sport performance, which includes any sport action. In a sense, it is used for both professional athletes and those who exercise for physical health. The factors that influence the progress of sport or improve the performance of an athlete or a sports team are very different. These factors include economic, social and cultural, climate, sociology, management conditions and Psychological and physical factors of athletes like personality type, confidence level and selfesteem, the kind of relationship between athletes and coaches and sports managers in terms of intimacy and friendship, and physical fitness of athletes, and, etc. Although, all the above factors are very effective in the quality of sport performance, the point of view of researcher, psychological factors of the athlete are more effective in improving the performance of sport performance than other factors. Therefore, with these interpretations, the current research aims to determine the level of obsessive- compulsive disorder in young male athletes and compare it with non-athletes in Mahabad.

Research Methodology

The current research is descriptive research, and since the instrument used is a questionnaire, it should be said that it is considered survey research, and in terms of use, it is considered applied research, and in terms of method, it is a cross-sectional study of a two-group comparison type. . The statistical population in this research consists of all young men (both athletes and nonathletes) of Mahabad city who are over 20 years old. In order to determine the sample size of the statistical population of athletes 20 years old and above in Mahabad city, a multi-stage cluster sampling method has been used in such a way that first, Mahabad city is divided into three northern, central and southern regions in terms of geographical divisions, then Two sports clubs were randomly selected from each region and a research questionnaire was given to the members of that club. So that in the northern region, the number of people in club number 1 and 2 is 20 and 15, respectively; In the central region, there were 15 people and 18 people, and in the southern region, 15 people and 17 people, which means a total of 100 people.

Considering that the number of athletes in 6 clubs was 100, therefore, in order to compare the level of obsessive-compulsive disorder among them, the same number of questionnaires were distributed among non-athletes, male 20 years and older, in those areas. Finally, 200 pure and filled questionnaires were collected. In order to collect information in the field of theoretical foundations and research literature, library resources, articles, required books and the global information network have been used. Also, in the present study, the Padua Obsessive-Practice Disorder (PPI) questionnaire, which was designed by Sanavio in 1985 and contains 60 five-choice statements, was used to collect data. It should be noted that this questionnaire was standardized in Iran by Shams et al. (2009) among 348 non-clinical samples of medical students at Tehran University, and its validity and reliability were confirmed and adjusted to 39 statements. In the current research, depending on the goals and research questions, different methods have been used for data analysis. In general, at the level of descriptive statistics, indicators such as frequency distribution tables, mean and standard deviation, and at the level of inferential statistics, the Kolmogorov Smirnov test, independent samples t-test under SPSS 22 statistical software have been used.


Showed the results of demographic factors that in the present study; are 50% of subjects (100 people) athletes and 50% (100 people) are non-athletes. Based on the findings of number Tables 1 & 2, it can be seen that in the present study; are 50% of subjects (100 people) athletes and 50% (100 uhpeople) are non-athletes. that the average age of the respondents in the current research is 26.15 years, the median is 26 years, the mode is 23 years; the lowest age in the studied sample is 20 years and the highest age is 33 years. The average of the research variables also showed that the rate of contamination obsessions in young male athletes was 8.10 and the amount of contamination obsessions in nonathletic male youths was 10.60. There is no significant difference between the rate of contamination obsessions among male athletes and non-athletes in Mahabad H0: There is a significant difference between the rate of contamination obsessions among male athletes and non-athletes in Mahabad H1. As the results of the above table show, according to the assumption of homogeneity of variances (sig=0.806) and considering that the calculated t is significant at the level of 0.05 (sig=0.000), therefore, the H0 hypothesis is rejected, and hypothesis H1 is confirmed. In other words, it can be concluded that there is a significant difference between the level of contamination obsessions in male athletes and non-athletes in Mahabad. As shown in the above table, this average is lower among young athletes than non-athletes (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Circle of the sports condition of the subjects.


Table 1: Distribution of the abundance and percentage of the subjects’ athletic status.


Table 2: The results of the independent t-test comparing the level of contamination obsessions disorder in male athletes and non-athletes.



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