*Corresponding author:Khalid SJ Aljabri, Department of Endocrinology, King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, PO Box 9862, Jeddah 21159, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Received: July 16, 2018; Published: July 25, 2018
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Background and Objective: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic factors. The prevalence of MetS are increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence as well as the individual components of MetS in Saudi population.
Methods: We analyzed 2810 participants who are equal to or older than 18 years old. All cases were from the population of the primary health at King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital. All data were collected by personal interview and based on a review of electronic medical records. Physician and nurse interviewers measured and recorded weight (kg) and height (cm). Metabolic risk factors were defined using the 2006 International Diabetes Federation criteria that define elevated triglyceride (TG) as ≥150 mg/dL (≥1.7 mmol/L) and reduced HDL as <40 mg/dL (<1.03 mmol/L) for male and as<50 mg/dL (<1.29 mmol/L) for female. Hypertension (HTN) was defined when the systolic blood pressure was ≥130 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure was ≥85 mm Hg in addition to receiving any medication for HTN. Abnormal glucose metabolism was con¬sidered when HbA1c (≥5.7) or when patients were known to have type 2 diabetes (T2DM). A combination of two or more of these risk factors was used to assess cutoff values for BMI. Body mass index (BMI) values classified as lean (BMI<18.5), normal weight (BMI=18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI=25.0-29.9 kg/m2), obese (BMI≥30 kg/m2. The total number of females were separated on basis of age values into 5 groups: <30 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years, 50-59 years and ≥60years.
Main results: Of the 2810 participants analyzed, 1060 (37.7%) were male and 1750 (62.3%) were female with female to male ratio 1.7:1. Age was 42.7±15.8 (minimum 18 years and maximum 105 years). MetS was present in 1815 cases (64.4%) where 692 cases (38.1%) were male and 1123 cases (61.9%) were female with female to male ratio 1.6:1, P=0.6. Males were significantly older than females in MetS patients (56.4±12.9 vs. 53.6±12.4 respectively, p<0.0001). BMI was significantly higher in females than males with MetS patients (33.0±7.2 vs. 30.1±5.0 respectively, p<0.0001). Female patients with metabolic syndrome were significantly younger, had higher except TG mean BMI and HbA1c>5.6 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients with T2DM or having HbA1c>5.6 were 3-fold to possess MetS (OR=3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]=3.0, 3.8, or had been diagnosed with HTN (OR=2.1; 95% CI=2.0, 2.2), (p<0.0001), have low levels of HDL-cholesterol (OR=3.6; 95% CI=2.7, 4.9) and were also more likely to have elevated plasma triglyceride levels (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.8, 2.0). MetS prevalence is consistently statistically significant with increasing age (p<0.0001). Moreover, the frequency of MetS is consistently statistically significant with increasing BMI (p<0.0001) and higher among older age group ≥60 years of age in all patients and both genders. Moreover, MetS prevalence was higher among BMI≥30 group in all patients and both genders. Thus, the mean of BMI among MetS is statistically significant correlated with increasing with advanced age, (r= -0.1, p<0.0001).
Conclusion: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Saudis is relatively high. Female gender, old age and obesity can be regarded as related factors.
Keywords: Metabolic syndrome; Prevalence
Abbreviations: HDL: Low High-Density Lipoprotein; HTN: Hypertension; TG: Triglycerides; WHO: World Health Organization; NCEP: National Cholesterol Education Program; ATP III: Adult Treatment Panel III; IDF: International Diabetes Federation; CVD: Cardiovascular Disease; T2DM: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
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