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Research Article(ISSN: 2638-5910)

Epidemiology of Osteoporosis in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Volume 1 - Issue 3

Khalid S Aljabri1*, Samia A Bokhari2, Muneera A Alshareef1, Patan M Khan1 and Bandari K Aljabri MS2

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    • 1Department of Endocrinology, King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
    • 2College of medicie, Um Al Qura University, Saudi Arabia

    *Corresponding author: Khalid S Aljabri, Department of Endocrinology, King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Received: September 01, 2018;   Published: September 07, 2018

DOI: 10.32474/ADO.2018.01.000114

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Abstract

Background and Objective: The incidence of type 1 diabetes is increasing. Osteoporosis has become an alarming health problem throughout the entire world. The aim of this study were to estimate the epidemiology of osteoporosisamong Saudi patients with T1DM, living in the western province, attending the diabetes centre at King Fahd Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, KSA.

Methods: Eligible patients were older than 12 years old, had T1DM . All patients were recruited from the population of the Diabetic Centre at King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital. Eligible patients met with investigators for a complete history and physical examination, to have baseline laboratory assessments including glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c). HbA1c was expressed as percentage and measured using the high-performance liquid chromatography. BMD in the current study was measured using The Lunar Achilles (In Sight, GE Healthcare, USA), which is a proven bone ultrasonometer to avoid exposing the children to unnecessarily ionizing radiation. All measurements were converted to Z-scores using a data bank for age-matched speed of sound values supplied by the manufacturer. We excluded patients with a history of fractures of less than 1 year and those with associated bone/joint problems, liver disease or patients on long-term steroid therapy.

Main results: 137 patients completed the study. There were 60 (44%) male and 77 (56%) were female with mean age 19.1±4.9. Osteoporosis was found in 53 of cases (38.7%) of patients. There were 23 (43.4%) male and 30 (56.6%) were female giving a female to male ratio 1.3:1. Osteoporosis was found in 53 of cases (38.7%) of patients. Baseline characteristics are shown in Table 1. Patients with osteoporosis were significantly younger, longer diabetes duration and have higher HbA1c than patients without osteoporosis. Osteoporosis was higher in females than male and was seen more in cases with HbA1c > 9.0 as compared to HbA1c groups of < 8.0 and 8-9, (Figures 1 & 2). Cases with longer diabetes duration (≥6years) have nonsignificant more frequent osteoporosis than cases with diabetes duration < 6 years, 34% vs. 66% respectively, p=0.4. There were no significant differences between genders and frequency of osteoporosis in relation to diabetes duration.

Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate lower BMD in young women with type 1 diabetes. Although bone density testing is not routinely performed in young women, these data suggest that screening may be important in young women with type 1 diabetes. In addition, these women should be counseled regarding lifestyle interventions that may improve bone health, including adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, and exercise.

Abstract| Introduction| Methods| Statistical Analysis| Results| Discussion| Acknowledgment| References|

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