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ISSN: 2638-5910

Archives of Diabetes & Obesity

Research Article(ISSN: 2638-5910)

Associated Risk Factors in Pre-diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes in Saudi Community

Volume 1 - Issue 2

Khalid S Aljabri1*, Samia A Bokhari1, Muneera A Alshareef1, Patan M Khan1 and Bandari K Aljabri2

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    • 1Department of Endocrinology, King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
    • 2College of medicine, Um Al Qura University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    *Corresponding author: Khalid S.J. Aljabri, Department of Endocrinology, King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, PO Box 9862, Jeddah 21159, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Received: May 29, 2018;   Published: June 11, 2018

DOI: 10.32474/ADO.2018.01.000108

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Background and Objective: The prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are increasing worldwide. Pre diabetes is a high-risk state for the development of diabetes and its associated complications. This study aims to determine the associated risk factors among T2DM and pre diabetes patients among adult Saudi population.

Methods: For the present study, we analyzed participants who are older than 20 years old and had undergone a blood test to assess HbA1c. A total of 1095 were selected to be enrolled for the present study. All patients were from the population of the Primary health and Diabetic Centres at King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital. Participants were defined as having T2DM according to self-report, clinical reports, use of anti diabetic agents and HbA1c (≥6.5). Non T2DM participants were divided into normoglycemic or pre diabetic group as follows: HbA1c < 5.7, (normoglycemic) or HbA1c 5.7-6.4 (pre diabetes). Laboratory assessments included HbA1c, lipids, creatinine and urinary micro albumin.

Main results: Of the 1095 participants analyzed, 796 were women (72.7%). Age was 45.1±11.1 and BMI was 30.7±5.7. Hypertension had been diagnosed in 415 (38.2%) participants. Blood measurements revealed the following values: creatinine 68.2±22.0umol/L , Urine micro albumin (g/min) 55.4±200.3, total cholesterol levels 4.9±1.0mmol/L, high density lipoprotein 1.3±0.3mmol/L, triglyceride levels 1.5±0.7 and low density lipoprotein 3.0±0.9mmol/L. Of the overall 1095 analyzed participants, pre diabetes was present in 362(33.1%), 368(33.6%) were classified as T2DM and 365 (33.3%) as normoglycemic. When comparing pre diabetic with normoglycemic and T2DM population, pre diabetic subjects were more likely to have hypertension and higher triglyceride than normoglycemic but less than T2DM subjects. In addition, pre diabetic patients compared with T2DM ones had higher levels of low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein. Logistic regression analysis showed no significant association of any of the co variables with normoglycemic subjects in front of the pre diabetic reference group, whereas the odds of being in the diabetic group gets multiplied by 7.56 for each unitary increase in male gender (p< 0.0001, OR: 7.56, 95% CI 3.16-18.23). Also, individuals with hypertension had higher odds of being in the DM group than in the prediabetic (p<0 .0001, OR: 6.06, 95% CI 3.25- 11.28). Age of subjects had lower odds of being in the DM group than in the pre diabetic (p<0 .0001, OR: 0.85, 95% CI (0.82-0.89).

Conclusion: This study found the major clinical differences between pre diabetic and T2DM Patients were the higher hypertension and hypertriglyceridenia in the T2DM patients. Clearly, despite the small sample size, this study has posed important public health issues that require immediate attention from the health authority. Unless immediate steps are taken to contain the increasing prevalence of obesity, diabetes, pre diabetes, the health care costs for chronic diseases will pose an enormous financial burden to the country

Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes; Pre diabetes; Risk factors

Abbreviations: T2DM: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; IFG: Impaired Fasting Glucose; BMI: Body Mass Index; HTN: Hypertension; AER: Albumin Excretion Rate; DN: Diabetic Nephropathy; OR: Odds Ratio; CI: Confidence Interval; I-IFG: Isolated Impaired Fasting Glucose

Abstract| Introduction| Methods| Statistical Analysis| Results| Discussion| Conclusion| Acknowledgment| References|