Objective: In addition to its role in energy production and metabolism, mitochondria play a major role in apoptosis, oxidative
stress, and calcium homeostasis. This review highlights the intricate role of mitochondria derived peptides (MPs), oxidative stress,
and age-related disease such as diabetes.
Key Findings: The mitochondria produce MDPs: specific peptides that mediate transcriptional stress response by its
translocation into the nucleus and interaction with DNA. MDPs are regulators of metabolism with cytoprotective effects through
anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory responses and anti-apoptosis. This class of peptides comprises: humanin (HN), MOTS-c,
Small HN-like peptides. HN inhibits mitochondrial complex 1 activity and limits oxidative stress level in the cell. HN has been shown
to prevent apoptosis by decreasing the reactive oxygen species production. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are
implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Data suggested that MDPs had a role in improving type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Summary: The goal of this review is to discuss the newly emerging functions of MDPs and their biological role in ageing and
age-related diseases such as T2D.