Immediate cause of dystocia requires certain preparations and
precautions so that if dystocia occur, prompt handling may prevent
injury or death of either or both the dam and fetus. The maternal
causes of dystocia are largely those factors that produce a narrowing
or stenos are of the birth passage or prevent the normal entrance
of the fetus into the birth canal. Robert  stated that hereditary
or congenital hypoplasia of the birth canal or vulva; compression
or stenos is of the cervix, vagina, or vulva by indurations caused
by scars and connective tissue usually from injuries at previous
parturitions; failure of the cervix to dilate can leads to maternal
Case History and Observations
A five year old, full term pregnant, Kankrej cow of her second
parity was presented to the Jalaram Gauseva Kendra, Bhabhar,
district Banaskantha. The history revealed that the cow was in
labour since last day. The true water bag was ruptured before
3hrs and progress of two hind limbs was noticed at vulvar orifice.
The owner has made efforts to deliver the fetus by application of
traction at both hind limbs. The cow was in lateral recumbency
with eversion of vagina and the fetus was presented at external so
in posterior longitudinal presentation, lumbo-sacral position with
the hind limbs protruding out of the cervix (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Prolapse of the vagina at the time of parturition in Kankrej cow.
The cow was brought on the dorsal recumbancy and epidural
anaesthesia was induced with 6ml of 2% lignocain hydrochloride.
Inj. Dexamethasone 5ml was injected before the intervention. The
dorsal aspect of the external so of the cervix was incised to widen
the passage and calving rope was applied at the pastern joint of both hind limbs. The cervix was hold at the external so and gentle
forced traction was applied on the calving rope. The dead male
fetus was delivered (Figure 2). The placenta was removed manually,
the incision was sutured using chromic catgut #1 and the prolapsed
mass was relocated as per standard procedure. Four boluses of
Oxytetracycline hydrochoride were placed in uterus. The cow was
treated with Inj. DNS- 4 lit. I/v, Inj. RL-2 lit. I/v, Inj. Analgine-15ml
I/m, Inj.Oxytetracycline Hydrochloride 40ml I/v and Injection
Chlorpheneramine maleate 10ml I/m. The cow could not survive
and succumbed to death after 3 hrs of the treatment.
Robert  stated that when the balance between fetus size
and pelvic or genital tract diameter gets upset, the dystocia results.
When traction is applied the operator should constantly watch,
examine and direct the progress of fetus by instructing his assistance
when to apply traction, when it should cease, and in what direction
it should be applied. If the progress of the fetus through the birth
canal ceases, traction should be discontinued and the fetus and the
birth canal should be carefully examined to determine the cause
of the obstruction. The cause should be overcome or corrected
before exerting further traction. If the patient is straining, traction
should be applied principally during expulsive efforts. These both
aids the withdrawn of the fetus and to some extent prevents the
fetus dragging parts of the uterus and vagina along with it. To avoid
the lacerations and ruptures of the soft structures of the birth
canal time should be allowed for dilatation of the birth canal as the
fetus advances. In the present case prolapse of the vagina might
have occurred due to applying extreme expulsive efforts while
the cervix was incompletely dilated and the fetus might have died
due to asphyxia. The death of the cow might have occurred due to
hypovolaemia resulted into shock.