Medicinal plants contain bioactive chemicals which are capable of producing a positive physiological action in the body of human
and animals and they represent a great potential for the discovery and development of drugs. The present review focuses on the
effect of Daniellia oliveri leaf extract on growth performance, carcass characteristics, caeca microbial population and blood profile of
broiler chicken. Daniellia oliveri extract has significant therapeutic effects including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidants,
hepato-protective, anti-nociceptive, cytotoxic, neuroprotective, chemoprotective, antispasmodic, antifungal, hypolipidemic and
hypotensive activity. It is also loaded with minerals, vitamins, amino acids and phytochemicals conferring it the ability to perform
multiple biological activity. The extract is relatively cheap, effective, and safe and could be used as an alternative to antibiotics. It can
be concluded that Daniellia oliveri leaf extract could be used to bridge the gap between food safety and production. Thus, preventing
environmental contamination and high case of diseases.
Medicinal plants are plants which contains substances or
biologically active compounds that could be used for therapeutic
purposes or which are precursors for the synthesis of useful
drugs [1-3]. They are reservoirs of bioactive chemicals which have
been used for the treatment of various ailments in human and
animals [4,5] The pharmacological benefits of medicinal plants
are primarily due to the presence of phytochemicals produced in
the plant tissues as primary and secondary metabolites. Primary
metabolites includes protein, chlorophyll and common sugars
while alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, phenols and
tannins are included in secondary constituents [3,5-8]. Scientific
studies have shown that phytochemicals exhibit various important
pharmacological activities i.e., antimicrobial [9,10], cytotoxic
[11-13], antitumor [14,15], antioxidants [16,3], antifungal ,
antispasmodic [18,19], antiviral , immune-modulator [20,21],
hypolipidemic [22-24], neuroprotective [25,26], hepato-protective
[27,28] and chemo preventive properties [29-31]. World health
organization (1991) reported that there are over 25,000 species
of medicinal plant globally which have been traditionally used
for the treatment of malaria, gastrointestinal diseases, wounds,
anaemia, cough etc. [32-34]. Phytochemical constituents in plants
depends on the age, method of extraction, geographical location,
antinutrients, harvesting season, storage conditions and part
of plants used [35-37]. Many of these herbal plants have been
reported to be relatively cheap, effective and safe, thus encouraging
food safety [38,39]. Among the potential plant is Daniellia oliveri.
Daniellia oliveri (Rolfe) is an evergreen uncultivated copiously
available tree, particularly in the savannah zone of Nigeria .
The tree can grow up to 18 – 24 m in height, the leaves are with
a glabrous common stalk of 0.15 – 0.46 m long swollen base, 4-9
pairs of leaflets 0.06 – 0.15 m long by 0.04 – 0.08 m . Its flowers
are whitish, sweet smelling in appearance and also characterized by flat terminal panicles with alternate horizontal branches up to
0.15 m long, the whole inflorescence glabrous, sepals 0.01 – 0.02 m
long up to 0.01 m broad. 1 large petal is 0.008 – 0.015 m long (Keay
et al., 1964) (Tables 1-3).
Table 1: Phytochemical components (mg/100g) of Daniellia oliveri leaf meal.
Table 2: Vitamin composition of Daniellia oliveri leaf meal.
Table 3:Effect of Daniellia oliveri leaf extract on the performance, carcass characteristics, caeca microbial population and blood
profile of broiler chicks.
Proximate, mineral, phytochemical, vitamins and amino
acid composition of mature Daniellia oliveri leaf
According to , Daniellia oliveri leaves contains dry matter
(89.11 %), crude protein (18.95 %), crude fibre (13.11 %), ether
extract (4.78 %), ash (6.10 %), acid detergent fibre (28.10 %),
neutral detergent fibre (47.50 %) and nitrogen free extract (46.17
%) respectively while mineral analysis revealed the presence
of calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, iron,
manganese, copper, zinc and cobalt at 12.17 mg/100g, 36.88
mg/100g, 42.21 mg/100g, 44.52 mg/100g, 37.18 mg/100g,
1.44 mg/100g, 0.78 mg/100g, 0.51 mg/100g, 6.14 mg/100g and
0.10 mg/100g respectively. Amino acid composition of Daniellia
oliveri showed the presence of threonine, leucine, lysine, valine,
tryptophan, glycine, phenylalanine, histidine, methionine, alanine,
serine, proline, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, tyrosine and cysteine
at 1.89, 5.11, 2.88, 5.93, 1.03, 4.33, 5.61, 6.33, 0.77, 5.89, 4.09, 6.08,
7.11, 10.22, 1.04 and 1.00 (%) respectively .
Pharmacological properties of Daniellia oliveri leaf
a. Antimicrobial/ Antifungal properties
Studies on the aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extract of
dried leaves of Daniellia oliveri leaves showed its ability against
Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aereus, Pseudomonas spp and
Tricophyton rubrum [42,43]. This could probably be due to the
presence of alkaloids and flavonoids. According to Faizi et al.
(2003a), medicinal plants exhibit antimicrobial properties due
to their ability to intercalate deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of
microorganisms. Flavonoids have antifungal activity in vitro 
b. Antioxidant properties
Chemical analysis of the leaves of Daniellia oliveri yielded
phenols which are strong antioxidants [45,46]. They also have the
capacity to scavenge free redicals, thus preventing diseases [47,48].
c. Antipasmodic properties
The antispasmodic activity of the n-butanol soluble part of
aqueous portion of the ethanol extract of leaves of Daniellia oliveri
on isolated guinea pig ileum against three spasmogen (acetylcholine,
histamine and barium chloride). The extract inhibited acetylcholine
and histamine induced spasms in the animals [49,50].
d. Anti-nociceptive properties
Aqueous extract from Daniellia oliveri leaves showed a
significant (P˂ 0.05) anti-nociceptive activity against acetic acid
induced writhing in mice at a tested doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg
and 200 mg/kg (i.p). From the experiment, it was discovered that
at 200 mg/kg i.p caused a total anti-nociception up to 120 minutes
e. Anti-hyperglycaemic properties
Study on administration of aqueous Daniellia oliveri leaf extract
at 250 mg/kg body weight in rat compared with a standard drug,
glibenclamide revealed that the test dose of the extract caused
a significant (P˂0.05) lowering of blood sugar level in alloxan
diabetic rats within six hours; from 261.00±3.02 to 65.00±5.40 and
from 302.75±79.62 to 119.00±20.30 after three weeks. The same
dose did not show blood sugar lowering effect in normoglycaemic
rats. The experiment concluded that D. oliveri is a good option for
alternative medicine in the management of diabetes mellitus .
f. Anti-diarrheal properties
Study results on the n-butanol extracts of Daniellia oliveri
extracts was carried out on parfused isolated rabbit jejunum and
castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. The n-butanol extracts: NBD
and NBF (0.16- 3.2mg/ml) caused a dose-dependent relaxation of
isolated rabbit jejunum. The acute toxicity test for NBD and NBT
in mice established an i.p LD50 of > 4000mg/kg for D. oliveri and
1131.4mg/kg for F. sycomorus. In castor oil induced diarrhea,
80% protection was observed for D. oliveri at doses of 200mg/
kg and 60% protection was observed at 100mg/kg and 50mg/kg
respectively. For F. sycomorus 100% protection was observed at
doses of 120mg/kg and 60mg/kg, for the n-butanol extract. The
antidiarrheal activity was comparable to loperamide 5mg/kg. The
result revealed that the extracts have pharmacological activity
against diarrhea . RBC: red blood cell; PCV: pack cell volume;
Hb: haemoglobin; ALT: Alkalinine transaminase; AST: Alanine
serum transaminase; ALP: Alkaline phosphatase [52-66].
Medicinal plants are the cheapest and the most available
sources of nutrients, supplying the body with protein, energy,
minerals, vitamins and amino acids. They also contain bioactive chemicals or phytochemicals (alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins,
saponins, phenols, terpenoids etc.) with therapeutic properties,
thus making them function as: antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory,
antioxidants, antiviral, antifungal, anticancer, hepato-protective
activities. There are several medicinal plants that have been worked
on, yet, some are still underexplored. Among the potential plant is
Daniellia oliveri leaf.
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Srinivas Rk, Rajeev Re, Ganapaty S (2011) Diuretic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aqueous Extract of Aerva Sanguinolenta (L) Blume Int Res J Pharm 2(7): 65-67.
Alagbe JO, Omokore Ea, Tijani TD (2018) Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Dried Spondias Mombin Linn Leaf on The Performance and Blood Profile of Broiler Chickens Pacific. International Journal 2(2):46-58.
Jegede Ia, Nwinyi Fc, Muazzam I, Akumka Dd, Njan Aa, et al. (2006) Micromorphological, Anti-Nociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory104investigations of Stem Bark of Daniellia Oliveri. African Journal of Biotechnology 5(10): 930-935.
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