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ISSN: 2690-5760

Journal of Clinical & Community Medicine

Mini ReviewOpen Access

The Narration of Tales, Myths and Legends Within the Framework of Small Therapeutical Groups of Teenagers Suffering of Disharmonic Disorders with Sometimes ADHD or Comportmental Troubles, Having Similar in Age, Project of Helping Psychotherapeutic Care Volume 5 - Issue 2

Doctor Hugues Scharbach MD*

  • Paris’s University, Doctor of Psychology LYON II’s University, Neuropsychiatrist, France

Received: February 16, 2023   Published: March 03, 2023

Corresponding author: Doctor Hugues Scharbach, PARIS’s University; Doctor of Psychology LYON II’s University; Neuropsychiatrist, FranceMaslakov, Grodno State Medical University, Grodno, Republic of Belarus, Europe

DOI: 10.32474/JCCM.2023.05.000209


Abstract PDF

Keywords: Positive and constructive effects sought in terms of mentalization in a positive way of towards health; improvement of attention; spans better consideration of the other in communication; relational inclusion in a real group; session including three time; stimulation of the imagination; anchoring to reality during time 2 of the reflexive pause; unlike the characters involved in virtual games; reinforced capacity for psychic elaboration; enhanced memorization


Having practiced during a long time as a Pedo- Psychiatrist with the Function of Therapeutic Manager in a Hospital department welcoming young with affective or behavioral disorders, we have acquired an experience in various modalities of psychotherapeutic care [1].

Implementation of different therapeutical Groups:

Certainly, dual or famial psychotherapical’s session. But we have also regularly put in place many kind of therapeutic groups, especially in the storytelling by an technical assistant specialist in this practice, assisted by a counselor psychologist. In particular, during afternoon -outside school hours whether they are cared for in an institution or followed in an external consultation- The duration was between 2 and 4 hours, always in a suitable space in a fixed place at the rate of two sessions per month [2].

Considerations about Telling story or a chronicle/ Recital, validated most often by Immutable History over the generations over the Centuries

Polished, refined by time, they have become true eyeballs of Arts, able to solicit the perceptive Self, and it can generate a creative impulse that contributes to an intimate level of the psyche, which will be collected in the two later stages of the session. That is why the setting up and the stage orally figurative development is not always evident and depends on several factors. One is depending on the type of the interest how the listening mode is triggering, knowing that that kind of teenagers usually are tending to disperse their ideas, when these are not focused on a generally concrete goal often negative with low usual conceptualization in connection with their type of disorders. This session , in fact, includes 3 stages narration without recourse to notes, reflexive pause then, elaboration of each person as to their perception of the subject [3].

Realization of The First Phase

The narrator should not be developed in a monotonous way. He must use show variations in the exposure with a distinct, well sung voice, followed by brief pauses after marked intonations during crucial moments or changes of the different sequences in history as to arouse the expectation of the further events to attract, to appease the interest. They are put in place as notably as complementary aimed at providing Focus of attention and with a subsidiary vocation, to develop cognitive functioning, capacities of Symbolization and even the beginning of an interest in creativity, with an impact at the level of consciousness, when during the later phases, they had to express their opinion in an associative way, then graphically produce the representation of the hero or the moment in the story, which had them most attractively marked. Emotional reaction should be detected [4,5].

Ecoute Classique De Modeles D’histoires Modelees Depuis L’antiquite Ou Des Temps Anciens

Apart from the psychopathological aspects concerning the teenagers and adolescents admitted for therapy for psychopathological disturbances, often in the register of disharmonies or borderline disorders, sometimes associated with little dissocial tendencies and school difficulties due to a lack of attractiveness or educational investment as regard classical pedagogic teaching modalities with possible little limitation of abilities, or skills in the handling. Even also a certain lack of habit to separate benchmarks involving the use of abstraction. It could be more or less unconscious rejection expressing themselves in an actively motivated way. In the context of this tales’s group, we could extrapole to the reception of young’s passively dependent, and new facts of the last two decades must be taken into account: an addiction to virtual games, to gaming, the collision could be almost daily [6].

There is, it would seem, a reflection to dig, to be explored concerning the positive advantages of this scansion in the reality of action -when the children or the teenagers translate and shape his imaginary representations, who are arising, resulting from the story -delivered by real adults – at the level of an ego reinforcement to its modes of object relations and also an implication related to many psychological and even clinical manifestations. Other aspects means the strength of mediation which accompany this aid of care and the effects could be observe during the post-narration time, notably in the 3th stage, devoted to account modeling, earth, painting, even cardboard cutting. Implication of certain psychopathological defense mechanisms such as projective, identification, splitting, primitive idealization could be observed. The best one is certainly the sublimation [7].

a) For that, the administration of these metaphorical objects must be well targeted, according to a rigorous methodology, which imply a good knowledge of the story mentally approached as well as epic requested for older. A preliminary study of the possible implications and of the interpretative aspects that may arise from it is necessary. For example, if a tale has been choosing, it owns a marvelous dressing and a happy denouement. Among the classic: « blue beard; typical are « snow white, little red riding hood, the cat in the bag...i.e. More tendentious is till the miscievous for the youngers; more close of certain real aspects of the reality are promethee; persee adventures or the more or less arranged performances of herakles or siegfried or the involving travel hazards of ulysses, depending on composition of the group, for older or mature. But also, music, lyric compositions could be required: « the enchanted flute » of w. Mozart, even ravel’s opera as « the child and the spells », whose colette was the author of the booklet are also including an archetypal subject as the one of the literary, which are expressed on another figurative form, in the stories. The therapist must be informed of the previous history, because sometimes in the frame of the therapy, associated dreams can emerge and be described or unusual attitudes may appear, taking a significant value in relation to the problem of the subject and what is known from each environment, in particular in the relationship intra-family [8,9].

Interpretation of some Characters type and Items

a) The Fairies appear tutelary, a bit like Athena PALLAS or also to the 3 fates, which spun destiny/fate. Thus, SNOW WHITE could be connoted as a young girl entry a latency phase or un young woman presenting hysterical somatizations. The OGRE, clumsy and cruel, is comparable to the threatening oral father, identifiable to SATURNE-CHRONOS devoring his children, as the Earth-Cybèle brought them into the world, only the one who will become JUPITER escaping from seizure. Some participants will focus on a severe father or with alcoholic attraction arousing anger or concerning the level of sibling rivalry leading to buried hostility [10].

b) Little Red Riding HOOD come to consider recklessness in recommendations and disobedience in its consequences -with possible danger as well danger in 2 or the 3 immature little pigs helped by a friendly relevant little wolf, and also the notion of advancing in age with bodily transformations and different dispositions and strengths that may imply/involve weakness in the elderly.

c) In the tale RAIPOINCE, a woman who was expecting a child craved fruits located in a witch’s garden. Her husband, who would help his wife, wanted to look for such fruits but the witch surprised him. She spared him only in exchange for the child, which was about to be born. The little girl was locked up in a high tower and received food by rolling the braids of her long hair from a small postern. And one day, the son of a king passed.

We could recall that the recollection of dreams is not rare, nor harmless and famous cases are historical. It’s allowed even to evoked premonitory dreams: like that of the mother of Cyrus, the one of Constantin during the night before the battle of Pont Milvius, « by this sign, you will So the dream reported by OLYMPIAS, Alexandre le GRAND’s mother: that she was struck the night before the conception; the 3 postponed dreams of DESCARTES. « The Thousand and One Nights deploy the space of illusion. They contain the most archaic anxieties. Tales, Myths and Legends give an excellent opportunity to each of the partners involved to get in touch and to assimilate the cognitive schemes and implementing adapted and harmonious references of the others. Sometimes, symbolism can be obvious, close to revelation towards others. That means also that behind the obscuring of the moral meshing of the tale can be grasped the aspects of manifest content towards the latent, whose symbolism can be obvious, close to revelation of fantasy. We can rarely focus on emotionally disturbed aspects, anxious expression or disruptive behavioral without finding studies and interpretative models in Melanie KLEIN [11,12].

Let’s Look at the Reference Test

«A child is sitting in front of his homework and bored (many things are involved in boredom). His mother walks into the room and scolds him, leading on a rampage. The rage seizes the child. He breaks the teapot and the cup, tries to poke the squirrel, catches the cat...Rolls the teapot through the room, tears the paper lining the walls, rips the copper pendulum off the clock, empties his inkwell on the table. « On which, all the objects he abused come alive. The chair refuses to let him stay. Dry up...The clock a terrible stomach and starts ringing the clock like a madwoman.... Everything changes and becomes scary, frightening. Half suffocated, he takes refuge in the garden, which surrounds the house. » « But again, the air is full of terrifying things. A dispute to know who will bite the child bursts. » « He is then treated and received help. He says « mom »...The word redemption, which gave its title to the opera: « the Magic Word. » The oral frustration, which made the « indulgent good mother » « a bad mother », aroused the sadism of the little child. Thus, a teenager 14-years-old, who had shown himself to be defiant, provocative, auguring badly for the continuation of his participation, when listening to the story of Oedipus, was to share , later, his regrets, that his mother never wanted to talk to him about his father , who died when he was 6 years old and the incest’s doubts, the rumors, which ran in the village, according to which, he would be the son of his grand-father. He must have felt like a release after confiding and became progressive noticeably. It will appear on several occasions that group work seems more mobilizing than that in an individual setting, because of the semi-directive management and the situations that one teenager cannot manage or overcome in their solidarity intimacy. He finds in that expanded context a relaxing echo, by the fact that he was not frozen in a particular conflictual situation that goes beyond them on a maturing level and become unsurpassable.

Composition and Functioning of the Groups

The number of subjects received rarely exceeds 7 or 8. Beyond that, a lack of rigor appears with undesirable additional phenomena. -Children who participate in these mixed groups have between 5 and 10 years old. The oldest teenagers could sometimes reach 15 years old. Thus, with variables according to the degree of maturity. They can suffer from post-traumatic stress related to different types of misfortunes. They can also present anxiety or on the contrary an impulsive vigor close to omnipotence in some children who are to spoiled or left to their one devices, with provocative research in the relationship often of over compensation , an and affective immaturity with attentional lacks with neurotic features with scholar inhibitions but, the most frequent disorders are disharmonic (even already with BSD aspects), to which it’s to add instinctual troubles : encopretic, insomnia, tics, anorexiaboulimia, fanatical clinging to the virtual and to games. Sometimes, behavioral disturbances can take on dissocial connotations. These young’s are often turbulent or those who most often break the rules and whose inclusion is the most problematic, due to insolent or distractile attitudes. Those with psychotic accommodations are admitted more randomly. We have to add that, finally, some suitable subjects could be excluded.


This technical mean may aid to the psychotherapeutical implementation. We must remember that it is different types of conflictualization, and it is allow to take in consideration both interactivity and a permissiveness of psychic expression, whether in a commentary or in a drawing. That session arouses sometimes uncontrolled, involuntary emergence of the unconscious, especially after the story. That’s particularly when occurs the time with highlighting the qualities and functions of the characters. These are undoubtedly within the framework of the free creativity, according to the chosen mode, which is most usual: drawings or painting; decoupage and more. At the end, the comments are analyzed and commented on in an appropriate manner with a progressive aim according to the temperament and the known difficulties of the young person’s personality. A snack is offered to close the session but the comportments as well as the words exchanged are not lost sight.


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