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ISSN: 2690-5760

Journal of Clinical & Community Medicine

Research Article(ISSN: 2690-5760)

Seroprevalence of Treponema pallidum, HIV- Co-Infection, Cognitive Effects and Risk–Variables for Infection in a Tertiary Psychiatric Hospital in Nawfia, Nigeria Volume 2 - Issue 3

Ekejindu IM2, Nwadialor VS2, Ochiabuto OMTB1*, Obeagu EI2, Okwuanaso CB2, Ofodile C2, and Akulue JC2

  • 1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria
  • 2Department of Medical Laboratory Science,Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Received:July 07, 2020   Published: July 17, 2020

Corresponding author:Ochiabuto OMTB, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria

DOI: 10.32474/JCCM.2020.02.000136


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Background: Treponema pallidum and Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome infections can initiate psychosis.

Method: A cross- sectional study on sero-prevalence of Treponema pallidum, HIV- co-infection, cognitive effects and infection risk – variables was conducted on 154 mentally ill patients, eighty males and seventy-four females, age-range, 18-75 years old in psychiatric hospital Nawfia. Ethical approval was obtained. Subjects were recruited with the (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for dementia. Psychiatric condition was re-evaluated with (MMSE) tool and data collected with psychiatric assessment screening tool. Venereal disease was screened with VDRL kit, syphilis with pallidum immunochromatographic kit, confirmed with TPHA ELISA passive haemagglutination method. HIV antibodies were screened using parallel testing, confirmed with CD4+ western-blot method and statistics analyzed with SPSS version 23.

Results: Results revealed that males tested positive to Treponema pallidum (66.7%) than females (33.3%) with 3(100.0%) positives in total and 31-50 years old had the highest prevalence (66.7%). More subjects had severe cognitive impairment (51.1%) with (66.7%) of them (HIV-1 +; TPHA +), and (33.3%) (HIV-1 - ; TPHA +), (P = 0.010) between both statuses. For mild cognitive status, (6.8%) were (HIV+; TPHA-), (P= 0.001). Comparing screening and confirmatory tests showed lower positives with VDRL (1.3%) than TPHA kit (1.9%) (P= 0.001). Positive status for HIV screening and confirmatory methods were the same (8.4 %). Association between risk-factors and syphilis statuses showed significant association with being HIV positive, spousal status (P= 0.01) and not visiting prostitutes (P = 0.03), highest prevalence observed in Anambra state origins, Igbos, school drop-outs, non-condom users, and not having untreated sexually transmitted disease (100.0%).

Conclusion: pallidum and co-HIV infection in Nawfia psychotic patients encouraged more of severe cognitive impairment requiring awareness and prompt treatment.

Keywords: Seroprevalence; Treponema pallidum; HIV- co-infection; cognitive; Psychiatry; Nawfia

Abstract| Introduction| Materials and Methods| Sample processing/ Assay| Results| Discussion| Conclusion| References|