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ISSN: 2690-5760

Journal of Clinical & Community Medicine

Research Article(ISSN: 2690-5760)

A Survey on Antimicrobial Supply and Usage by Veterinary Outlets, Farmers and Practitioners in Selected Areas of Kebbi State Volume 3 - Issue 4

AA Ebbo1*, Nazir Sani2, A Bello, JM Bello3, SB Idris1, AA Sani1, L Junaidu2 and OO Gift3

  • 1Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Nigeria
  • 2Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Nigeria
  • 3Department of Veterinary Services, Agricultural and Rural development secretariat, FCT Admin, Abuja

Received:August 04, 2021   Published: August 18, 2021

Corresponding author:A A Ebbo, Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

DOI: 10.32474/JCCM.2021.03.000169


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A survey on antimicrobial supply and usage by outlets, veterinary practitioners, and farmers was conducted in selected areas of Kebbi State using three questionnaires of 15, 26, 15 copies respectively. This was by random a sampling technique. The information on various antibiotics used, sources of the antibiotics, and commonly retailed drugs were documented. The study showed that more than half of the respondents (outlets and farmers) were educated at either School Certificate or HND levels, whereas the practitioners are Veterinarians (DVM) within Kebbi metropolis. The study also revealed that the commonly retailed antibacterials by outlets are tetracycline, tylosin, sulphadimidine, vetcotrim® and penstrep®, with tetracycline having the highest percentage (84.2%). On the other hand, the most commonly used antibacterial among farmers is tetracycline (65%), while sulphadimidine is the commonly used drug with 42.30% usage among practitioners. Most of the antibacterials supplied by outlets, practitioners and farmers are sourced from distributors and retailers. In conclusion, this study has provided information on the commonly retailed and used antibiotics, where they were sourced from and who dispensed the drugs. It is recommended that practices such as better hygiene, vaccination and good herd management that may minimize the use of antibiotics be adopted.

Keywords: Antimicrobial; Veterinary practitioners; Farmers; Kebbi State

Abstract| Introduction| Materials And Methods| Results and Discussion| Discussion| Conclusion| Recommendations| References|