A Mammeri1,2, Guermaz R1,2, Brouri M1,2 and Tebaibia A1,2
Received:November 12, 2020; Published: November 23, 2020
Corresponding author: A Mammeri, Department of Internal Medicine, El Biar Hospital, Algiers, Algeria
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Background: Many studies have documented an increased risk of the development of hypertension (HT) and subsequent cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in persons with prehypertension (PHT). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of PHT in Algiers, and to explore the association between PHT and established cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). To our knowledge, this is the first report on this subject in our country.
Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in primary care consultation on a sample of 1086, 18-79 years old, unknown hypertensive. They benefited from screening for PHT (defined by JNCVII as a systolic pressure between 120-139mmhg and a diastolic pressure between 80-89 mmhg) and HT (a systolic pressure ≥140 mmhg and / or a diastolic ≥90 mmhg). After completion of a detailed demographic and medical questionnaire (gender, age, history of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and smoking). All participants were subjected to physical examination, anthropometric, blood lipid profile and blood glucose assessments. Odds ratios for associations of PHT with CVRF were obtained using logistic regression.
Results: the prevalence of PHT was 36.7%, more common in males (49.5%) than females (31.4%); it was also more important in the ages below 60 years. Prehypertensive patients had a sex ratio of 0.64 and an average age of 42.3 ± 13.9 years. Almost 35.8% of them were overweight, 31.8% were obese, 47.4% had a low physical activity, 17.3% had dyslipidemia, 13% had diabetes mellitus and 19.3% smoked cigarettes. Age and anthropometric values had significantly higher prevalence in the prehypertensive group compared to the normotensive group. Metabolic syndrome involved 25% of patients with PHT according to NCEP/ATPIII 2001 and 36.3% according to the IDF criteria 2009. Concurrent glycoregulation disorders and PHT was prevalent at 29.3% (N=117). Logistic regression analysis identified male (OR = 10,118; 90% CI: 6,277-16,309; p <10-3), overweight (OR = 2,116; IC90 %: 1.21-3.7; p = 0.009), obesity (OR = 1.614; 90% CI: 1.051-2.479; p = 0.029) and waist circumference (OR = 1.659; 90% CI: 1.054-2.609 ; p = 0.029) as the main determinants of PHT in our population.
Conclusion: Our study highlights the need for systematic monitoring of blood pressure in overweight subjects. The benefit of weight loss in the management of PHT seems more important than ever to reduce the cardiovascular risk of these new patients.
Keywords: Prehypertension; Cardiovascular risk
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