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ISSN: 2638-5368

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Advancements in Cardiovascular Research

Opinion(ISSN: 2638-5368)

Non-Compacted Cardiomyopathy: Is there a Need of a New Cardiomyopathy?

Volume 1 - Issue 5

Francesco Bianco1,2*, Piergiusto Vitulli1, Valentina Bucciarelli1, Alvin Chandra1,2, Masatoshi Minamisawa2,3 and Sabina Gallina1

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    • 1Institute of Cardiology, Chieti, Italy
    • 2Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, USA
    • 3Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan

    *Corresponding author: Francesco Bianco, Institute of Cardiology, Chieti, Italy

Received: April 04, 2019;   Published: April 09, 2019

DOI: 10.32474/ACR.2018.01.000129

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Abstract

Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is a myocardial disorder, classically defined as a double-layered myocardium, consisting of a thick, spongy/hypertrabeculated, non-compacted endocardial segment and a thin, compacted, epicardial portion. The American Heart Association (AHA) classifies LVNC as a distinct primary genetic cardiomyopathy, while the European Association of Cardiology (ESC) as an unclassified cardiomyopathy. Despite the magnitude of the entire literature yield on this topic, to date the pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatment are still unclear. Prevalence and mortality can range respectively from 0.05% to 0.26% and 5% to 47%, but they are affected by the imaging criteria adopted for the diagnosis. In fact, LVNC has been for years incidentally discovered during autopsy of unexplained sudden cardiac deaths. Conversely, with the advent of increasingly sophisticated cardiac imaging techniques, the presence of hypertrabeculated myocardium has become very common. Both echocardiographic and magnetic resonance criteria have been proven to overestimate the diagnosis, which shares a peculiar phenotype with other pathologies. It is known that a hypertrabeculated left ventricle leads to a symptomatic triad consisting of heart failure, arrhythmias and thromboembolisms. Therefore, it is current opinion of the authors that a “non-compaction cardiomyopathy” (NC-CMP) seems to be the most comprehensive definition of a disease that, similarly to the other cardiomyopathies, and regardless of its etiology, beyond a peculiar phenotype shares a distinct symptomatology and deserves to be listed as an entity between cardiomyopathies.

Keywords: Left Ventricle Non-Compaction; Non-Compacted Cardiomyopathy; Cardiomyopathies; Heart Failure; Sudden Cardiac Death

Abstract| Introduction| Morpho Pathogenesis| Epidemiology| Diagnosis| Clinical Aspects and Treatment| Discussion| Conclusion| References|

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