Nura A Mohamed1,2*, Isra Marei2,3, Sergio Crovella1, and Haissam Abou-Saleh1,4
Received:November 20, 2020; Published: December 02, 2020
Corresponding author: Nura A Mohamed, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, Doha-Qatar
To view the Full Article Peer-reviewed Article PDF
For the past few months, the world has been facing another coronavirus disease, COVID-19, caused by the SARS- CoV-2, giving the rise of a pandemic. In the vast majority of infected individuals, SARS-CoV-2 causes a mild ailment, but in some subjects, it progresses to severe disease or even death, with some groups being at high risk. However, SARS-CoV-2 is not the first coronavirus that caused serious, sometimes fatal, disease. Almost 20 years ago, SARS-CoV and later MERS were coronaviruses that led to severe diseases but did not result in pandemics. Some of the therapeutic lessons learned during the SARS-COV and MERS epidemics are being used now to treat COVID-19 patients, such as the still debated use of Chloroquine. However, there were other important preclinical studies performed around the time of SARS-COV and MERS epidemics that may also be useful applications in the COVID-19 context. This review highlights the benefits that could be gained by revising the non-conventional therapeutic approaches used in the previous coronavirus epidemics in improving the detection, treatment, and prevention tools and developing patient treatment follow-up strategies. Specifically, this review discusses the utilization of iron oxide nanoparticles due to their attractive properties. It also highlights the therapeutic opportunities and future directions of the iron oxide nanoparticles to be eventually employed in the current coronavirus pandemic.
Keywords: SARS-Co V-2; COVID-19; Nanomedicine; Iron Oxide Nanoparticles
Abbreviations:ACE Inhibitors= ACEIs; Acute Lung Injury= ALI; Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome= ARDS; Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2= ACE2; Angiogenesis II= AngII; Angiotensin Receptor Blockers= ARB; Antisense Oligonucleotide= ASO; Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic= BAME; Cardiovascular Diseases= CVDs; Computed Tomography= CT; Diabetic Melitus= DM Intensive Care Unit= ICU; Interferon-α= IFN-α; Interferon-β= IFN-β; Iron Oxide NPs= IONPs; Mas Receptors= MasR Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus= MERS-CoV; Nanoconjugates= NCs; Nanoparticles= NPs; Nanozymes= IONzymes; Nitric Oxide= NO; Norwegian University of Science and Technology= NTNU; Phosphodiesterases-5= PDE5; Poly (amino ester) with carboxyl groups (PC)-coated magnetic NPs= pcMNPs; Prorenin receptor- Ang II type 1 receptor= PRR-ACE-Ang II-AT1R; Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension= PAH; Reactive Oxygen Species= ROS; Receptor Binding Domain= RBD; Renin Angiotensin System= RAS; Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction= RT-PCR; Royal Gwent Hospital= RGH; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus= SARS-CoV; Spike protein= S; Transmembrane Protease Serine 2= TMPRSS2; Tumour Necrosis Factor= TNF; World Health Organization= WHO
Abstract| Introduction| ACE2 Expression Modulators| Therapeutic Lessons from Past Coronaviruses| Current SARS-CoV-2 Nanomedicine Applications| Nano-Detection Tools| Nano-Based Vaccines| Could iron oxide NPs be the magic bullet for SARSCoV- 2?| Conclusion| Acknowledgements| Conflict of Interest| References|
Bio chemistryUniversity of Texas Medical Branch, USA
Department of Criminal JusticeLiberty University, USA
Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Kentucky, USA
Department of MedicineGally International Biomedical Research & Consulting LLC, USA
Department of Urbanisation and AgriculturalMontreal university, USA
Oral & Maxillofacial PathologyNew York University, USA
Gastroenterology and HepatologyUniversity of Alabama, UK
Department of MedicineUniversities of Bradford, UK
OncologyCirculogene Theranostics, England
Radiation ChemistryNational University of Mexico, USA
Analytical ChemistryWentworth Institute of Technology, USA
Minimally Invasive SurgeryMercer University school of Medicine, USA
Pediatric DentistryUniversity of Athens , Greece
The annual scholar awards from Lupine Publishers honor a selected number Read More...
We know the financial complexity of Individual read more...
The annual scholar awards from Lupine Publishers honor a selected number read more...