Checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated efficacy in squamous NSCLC with tolerable toxicity profile. They are used as a
monotherapy, in combination with chemotherapy or following chemo-radiotherapy as a first line, second line or consolidation
therapy. As a first line, Pembrolizumab improves outcome (PFS) as a monotherapy in patients with PD-L1 expression of ≥ 50% (HR;
0.35). When used with chemotherapy, it improves PFS (HR; 0.56) irrespective of PD-L1 expression level. Nivolumab also improves
PFS (HR; 0.62), when used as a second line for those progressing with chemotherapy. Durvalumab improves PFS (HR; 0.68) when
used following chemo-radio therapy as a consolidation therapy.