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ISSN: 2690-5752

Journal of Anthropological and Archaeological Sciences

Short Communication(ISSN: 2690-5752)

The Environment and The Development of Sustainable Tourism Volume 4 - Issue 1

Eulogio Rodríguez Millares*

  • Faculty of Tourism, University of Havana, Spain

Received: April 23, 2021   Published: May 05, 2021

Corresponding author: Eulogio Rodríguez Millares, Faculty of Tourism, University of Havana, Spain

DOI: 10.32474/JAAS.2021.03.000179


Abstract PDF

Short Communication

Today’s crisis in European-American civilization, which can lead to a catastrophe of incalculable proportions for the human race, is a reality that we cannot fail to address and must prepare us to deal with it properly. This crisis, the result of the highest proportion structural crisis in the global capitalist system for the first time in its history that is not only economic, is also environmental, political, social, values, etc. represents, as international for our America held in October 2009 in Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico, the bankruptcy of the ideas systems of human Primera Conferenciala Alternativa Martiana. I would like to say in this regard that this situation requires urgent action with programmes to achieve a general and comprehensive culture whose first category is justice, which allows the actions of the university and cultural movement in general to be articulated with those of the social movements that are increasingly developing, as a premise for achieving together the ultimate victory over injustice and arbitrariness imposed by the great capital and which jeopardizes one’s existence of man on earth. But this analysis must be done taking into account the thinking of all the procers and thinkers who have made an important contribution to the history of humanity, regardless of ideological or political conditions, without prejudice of any kind, selecting the best applicable thoughts in our time. For this purpose, Cubans are inspired by the elective method of our country’s philosophical tradition that is synthesized in the formula of one of the founders of the Cuban school José de y Caballero who summed it up in this way: La Luz”all schools and no school, behold the school”.

The final resolution of that Conference, addressing the difficult and dangerous situation facing humanity as a result of this profound crisis imposed on us by the global capitalist system, states that the solution is to seek the practice of a comprehensive general culture, the first category of which is justice, which directs us towards the necessary articulation between the university and cultural movement in general , and those of a social nature that have been developing. Each, for their part, can make great efforts, but articulates could achieve the ultimate victory of the human species in the face of the injustice and arbitrariness that are endangering the life of our species. In this regard and as part of that deep crisis, Fidel Castro said dramatically: “Either it changes the course of events or our species could not survive. Despite the increasing deterioration of the environment, the capitalist system shows no willingness to act to change the current course that will lead to the death of most species, including the man whose action is responsible for the current situation. Referring only to our small Cuban archipelago, we know that upon the arrival of the Spaniards, Cuba had so many forests that Christopher Columbus said: “You can walk under the shade of the trees without being able to see the sun” Surely that was the panorama of all of Our America. The conquest represented, in addition to a cultural genocide, the beginning of a genocide of nature that the new imperialist colonizers then continued to break the harmony and balance of the lives of our Aboriginal people with la Madre Tierra. Triumphing nearly 500 years after domination, first for Spain and then for the US. la Revoluciónin the Cuban archipelago there was only less than 12% of the territory with forests and only in Baracoa, in Guantanamo for its isolation, there was a small corner of forests with native flora and fauna, as a testimony to the primitive forests, whose conservation became an urgent task for the revolutionary government, despite the construction of roads such as, a viaduct that represents a real challenge and a work that made engineeringLa Farola history in our country. The insulation of that area was broken like others whose best example is Zapata, but for the first time the la Cienaganature reserves are taken care of.

Not only did Cuba suffer a devastation of its forests with serious impacts on its basins and groundwater, but similar situations occurred in most countries. Haiti in our area is an example to remember from how far deforestation has become a human drama. In Africa the current situation is well known, where its people have no other source of cooking fuel other than the scarce firewood they can find in some countries. This permanent aggression to the environment that begins with deforestation, and continues with the pollution of watersheds, the increasing emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, the indiscriminate consumption of non-renewable resources such as oil, all resulting from colonialist and imperialist exploitation, have led to life on earth at the risk of disappearing. Fidel alerted him more than 20 years ago at the summit in Rio de Janeiro and there were those who thought he was crazy. In order to save life on earth, one must first eliminate its true responsibilities which are no other than the great capital and the stimulation of it, to excessive la ONU consumerism as a model of society. By studying Martí we can see that when he talks about the necessary balance of the world, he refers not only to political issues but also to the balance between man and nature. Martí said: “Those who feel have a duty to love her.” la Naturaleza This shows that imperialist exploitation and its hegemony worldwide to subdue southern countries, neither feel nor love nature and only love money and wealth.

To face the great challenges that humanity has lived since the last twentieth century where the first alerts of Climate Change began to be given, and to be consistent with the Thought of José Martí, and the effort that our country has been making since it triumphed socialist, has la Revolución prioritized actions toimplement programs aimed at reversing the inherited environmental situation with extensive efforts in forest repopulation, the protection of watersheds, the application of a culture for a sustainable economy, which has allowed tourism to be developed in new areas with minimal aggression to the environment such as the callaría of north Ciego de Avila or the perplexes, some of more than . , preserving ecosystems. 50 Km it should be noted that the pedraplen to Cayo Coco deserved an international award for the low negative impact on the environment and ecosystems of the area that represented this engineering work.

That is, while legal action has been taken, a consequent environmental education policy has been implemented as a necessary condition for working for a sustainable economy. In tourism, the practiceis synonymous with sustainable tourism and synthesizes the implementation of José Martí’s thinking. Achieving development in all sectors but always with the principle that it has to be an ecologically sustainable development is a premise of the Government and the State in Cuba. An example of this is the Manatee Plan and the Turquino Plan that have turned them into masstasks related to thereforestation of fields, cities and mountains. There are many results obtained among which we could list some of them:

a) More than 2la Repoblación Forestal9%of the reforested territoryhas been achieved and continued to reach higher numbers.

b) Systems as important as those of the Organs or Zapata have been saved. In this Cordillera, through a terrace program, it was possible to turn these mountains transformed by excessive forest exploitation into moles of stones, into true forests similar to those existing when Cuban Aboriginal people lived in balance with nature while becoming areas of high tourist Cordillerala Cienaga.

c) Important Watersheds have been protected and restored, citing as examples those of the Cauto River and the Toa River both in the east of the country. To this end, forestry farms have been created, which has allowed, through the support and assistance of the State, the development of self-consumption agriculture, to promote the reforestation of its margins, to go to the elimination or reduction of polluting loads, and to fill thousands of hectares with trees. Alongside the Government’s actions and efforts, the success of all these plans also lies in making nature care a mass task and a popular concern.

d) Another result in the search for a sustainable economy, has been in the activity of tourism, the protection of the coastline, and flora and fauna in each new pole of tourism development. Cayo Coco is an example of this.

e) In the protection of the coastline, it is worth highlighting the development of mangrove repopulation, perhaps Cuba being the only area in the island Caribbean that has experienced a remarkable growth of this important protective barrier, in particular in the face of possible sea level rise. This is part of the plans developed to address this reality as dangerous to small island states as Cuba.

f) In agricultural activity, the most significant thing has been the increasing use of fewer pesticides and agrochemicals, with the highest priority given to organic agriculture. More bio-pesticides and more organic fertilizers have greatly reduced that other aggression to the environment.

g) In refrigeration and in the cosmetic industry, it highlights the elimination of the use of freon gas and the use of other less aggressive propellants.

h) As an essential part of the validity of José Martí’s Thought in knowing how to live in harmony with nature and also as part of environmental education, it stands out next to the aforementioned plans, the forests created in the cities, so that they are not moles of concrete and that nature is lived alittle with its trees and birds.

Among these forests, it is worth noting the Martyred forests, of which there are already more than 600 throughout the country, planted by the Martian Clubs existing in each of the municipalities of the national territory.

Therefore, in order to address the issue of nature and the environment as part of the problems generated by this profound crisis that humanity is living in today, We must be guided by the teachings and the punderstimation of Martí who pointed out, “inspires, heals, comforts, strengthens and prepares for virtue man And man has not completed or reveals himself, nor sees the invisible but in his intimate relationship with nature”, This has been the source of inspiration for the development La Naturaleza of these programs. All these efforts aimed at consolidating a culture as part of the environmental la Naturaleza conservation Programme are supported by a legal and legal framework of mandatory compliance for all, whether companies or individuals, whether the State or private entities. This legal framework can be seen in the following examples:

i) La Ley Protection of the Environment, dictated by the People’s Power, which establishes the. State and social Asamblea Nacional.

j) Creation of the Environment and the Ministry of CITMA., as rectors of the environmental policy carried out by the country’s Agencia.

This legal framework obliges any economic development project in areas that may jeopardize environmental balance such as tourism, mining or others, to be approved by these instances. Despite the economic constraints that we have suffered since 1959 due to the constant aggressions of imperialism and its hostile policy against Cuba, first of all the economic and financial blockade, large national parks such as Humbolt or Baconao of high tourist value have been created or work has been worked to achieve that, it has declared as a natural heritage of the forest reserve of the Oreganos mountain range where tourism also develops in harmony with UNESCOla Humanidad. National parks, biosphere reserves created, protected areas found throughout the Cuban geography, special attention to endangered or at-risk flora and fauna, have been a conscious policy aimed at preserving nature and maintaining balance to conserve ecosystems. Not only have important results been achieved in forest repopulation, but also in the comprehensive work being carried out to protect endangered species of fauna and flora such as Almiquí, Manjuarí and Manatee, to name just a few examples of wildlife. Manjuarí and in our flora, constitute living fossils that have managed to increase their populations in la Palma Corcho their traditional habitat through the use of science and technique. Another example that evidences is the case of the Orchid Garden of Soroa, whose laboratories have reproduced by biotechnological methods species of orchids that had disappeared from their natural environment to be reseeded and most importantly, achieve their natural reproduction again.

It is also another example of a highly polluted area in which life begins to return as its pollution levels are greatly reduced. la BahíaLa Habana It was a few months ago an important news of radio and television, to know that at the mouth of one of the streams that drain in that bay, a manatee brought a son. Two objectives come together: the sign of life in the bay and the existence in liberation of that species at risk. Let us return to the essence of the master’s Thought. For Martí, it has a very broad connotation, pointing out the need for a general and integral culture. This includes care and love of nature and thus men should be educated. This concept has a strategic importance for the conscious action of humanity, in its coexistence with others, with the environment and with nature. Only in this way could we aspire to a world of peace governed by love and where man and nature coexist in harmony and balance. la Cultura. As if Martí had guessed the problems that today we are living for the most frequent and despicing natural disasters, said the Apostle ! that anger, that of persecuted nature. He turns to man, and like the tiger to the hunter, from a tap blow he defibies and crushes him. Growl and tend.... It also teaches us: “Religion and life are in” la Naturaleza. It is no secret to anyone that capitalism has the greatest responsibility for the great dangers that today threatens the very existence of life on earth. In their quest for greater gains, they have ignored these martyred maxims and supported their system in a society characterized by uncontrolled consumerism. Nature has been added which has certainly become angry and responds to global warming, to the persecution of man, the natural reacts with increasingly violent and frequent hurricanes, with greater occurrences of natural disasters of all kinds and at the same time alert that its anger can reach the elimination of the human species on earth.

In analyzing the current situation and the danger that threatens the human species itself, we can say that it is a direct consequence of the exploitation and consumerism of capitalist powers, who have acquired a GREAT ECOLOGICAL DEBT with which they must assume and LA HUMANIDAD pay. This was clearly evident at the UN on climate change in Copenhagen, where imperial pride, contemptfor the opinla Cumbreion of most governments present, and in particular, the contempt for small island countries and the remaining third world, clearly placed on the one hand the thesis defended by those responsible for global warming and on the other hand, the main victims of these changes, some of those countries are at risk of disappearing from the geography known today and others, as is the case in Cuba, will lose large ptortes of their territory by raising the seas. Nor was the matter resolved in the second round in Mexico. This important matter was not ignored in the ALMA held in Monterrey. At this Conference, Father Miguel D’Escoto, in his masterful Exhibition la Primera Conferencia entitled “For the Common Good of and” la Tierrala Humanidad noted:

If humans continue to behave like nature’s worst predators and disrespect life, experts estimate that by the end of the 21st century half of the species of flora and fauna in will have disappeared or will be about to disappear. They further note that the current rate of extinction is about one hundred times higher than it did before humans appeared over and could become a thousand or more times higher within a few decades.”la Tierrala Tierra. Elsewhere in his presentation, Father D’Escoto added: President Evo Morales Ayma, bent on raising awareness of these things, does not tire of repeating to us that we humans need, but that she does not need us. Even less so if we continue to behave with the arrogance that has been to this day the hallmark of humanity. It may help us to look at our reality with a greater degree of objectivity and humility if we reflect a little and compare ourselves to insects, those little beings that we consider insignificant and unnecessary, but who are actually responsible for things being well on la Madre Tierrala Tierra. The consequent attitude and the measures to be taken to address the problems of climate change and to reverse the current situation, we find it in the ethical-philosophical values of José Martí’s thinking, where we will have the answer to change the current reality. Of course, we will not be able to do, if we do not first achieve the building up of socialism and therefore, we must first defend freedom and the cessation of exploitation, achieve equal opportunities for all, culture and education for all equally. and move from a consumerist society to a society of logical and adequate consumption, as a means of achieving a better world in which imperialism has no place. Build a society of justice and solidarity. Martí said “Every man should be required, as a title to enjoy public rights, that he would have planted a certain number of trees Not destroying nature but protecting and helping it and in this the planting of trees have a very important role. They are the oxygen factories that nature has given us for their photosynthetic capacity. Protecting them is a duty and an obligation. This explains the importance given by José Martí to education and culture. Martí said about it that “... the mother of decorum, the sap of freedom, the maintenance of and the remedy of her vices, is, above all else, the spread of culture” Seen in this la República way culture, we then have the definition of General Culture and Integrate where nature and the coexistence of men with it, is imposed as a necessity.

He is known for his love for children, for whom he created the magazine,La Edad “Golden”, aimed at the enjoyment of the Children of Our America, in which he told him the wonders of nature to take them to study plants, flowers, birds and insects and teach them the beauties of the earth, so that they would understand and love them better. Very early, in times when few were dealing with issues related to the environment and nature, the Apostle already promoted environmental education as the only way to maintain the balance between man and nature. Without environmental education programs it is not possible to be able to incorporate each member of the large human family into the defence of the environment and ensure their protection. In josé Martí’s work we can find a way in which “for him nature and culture shake hands in a struggle without visible end; from there comes this unstable balance, always resolved in a sharp synthesis between fact and its light, between doctrine and garbo, between service and beauty. Martí says in notebook number five: ! I want to break the cages to all birds;-that nature follow its majestic course, which man, instead of improving, interrupts; -let the bird fly free in its tree;-and the deer jumps free in its forest; -and man walks free in humanity! In his Reflection of March 7, 2010, entitled “The Dangers That Threaten Us,” Commander-in-Chief Fidel Castro noted:The more human beings engage in seeking answers to such profound and complex tasks that relate to intelligence, the more worth the efforts to get them out of their colossal ignorance about the real possibilities of what our intelligent species hascreated and is capable of creating. Living and ignoring it is the total denial of our human condition

In his own reflection, Fidel alsostates: Something, however, is absolutely true, very few imagine how close the disappearance of our species can be. Nearly 20 years ago, at a World Summit on the Environment in Rio de Janeiro, I addressed this danger to a select audience of Heads of State and Government who listened with respect and interest, though une concerned about the risk I saw over centuries, perhaps millennia. For them, technology and science, plus an elementary sense of political responsibility, would surely be able to confront it. With a large photo of important characters, the most powerful and influential among them, the important Summit was happily concluded. There was no danger. For all of us, Martí’s insistence on the conscious love of nature, the search for a general and integral culture to reach the levels of consciousness and love that is needed to face these challenges and what his best disciple, Fidel Castro, has been reiterating to us for more than twenty years, we interpret it as a call to combat for the safeguarding of life on earth , to achieve levels of equity and justice necessary for all human beings, since without it, it cannot even be thought of in reversing these problems that have led the world to the reality of perhaps involution to the pre-existence of the human species. The most perfect product created by nature in its constant evolution and refinement that is the human species, it is precisely the one who has created this serious imbalance that leads to dangerous climate change. Perhaps Martí, moved by the irrational way in which man lashs out at nature, said that “Nature does well to castcatastrophes upon men, because they raise in them virtues that are equaled to them and the doman” that Martí would say today when we are living almost the suicide of the human race by the irrationality of men, their selfishness and unbridled ambition that has placed the world before the alternative of the disappearance of life or at least, the loss of island territories of high tourist value that were under the waters of the ocean. The great prose of Martí, points in his work “Scientific Education” in September 1883, published in La AméricaNew York that “To the birds wings, to the finfish, to the men who live in nature, the knowledge of nature: those are their wings” In this thought we see again the importance that Martí attaches to the culture-nature binomial and the need for an environmental education to all starting with children.

This leads us to maintain a responsible attitude with nature that is synonymous with life and not only with a control of greenhouse gases, chemicals that are sources of pollution of water and underground basins and poison even the food we consume, the necessary conservation of forests and accompany each logging with plantings of new trees arriving , to achieve growths of wooded areas, to plant two trees for each felling. Responsible behavior with the environment must be maintained in all economic development, including tourism. A legal framework must be provided to boost the preservation of the environment, but this alone is not enough. Mechanisms must be created to enforce these laws. Tourism as an economic activity of great importance and which is based on culture and depends on the work of thousands of educated men, must also keep these realities in mind. That is why I would like to conclude with this thought of José Martí which illustrates the statements and arguments expressed. Martí said:”Nature is more beautiful when the light of the world grows with freedom; and goes as tarnished and cloudy, without the eloquent sun of the redeemed earth, nor the joy of the field, nor the health of the aíre, where men, when waking up every morning, put their foreheads on the yoke, the same as the oxen. Knowing the profound meaning of this ultimate martyr must be the beacon of our action in order to achieve that harmony between development and nature to which tourism does not escape. The Apostle says: “Nature prostrates before men and gives him their differences, that he may perfect his judgments; their wonders, that he may stoke his will to imitate them; his demands, that he may educate his spirit at work, in contradictions, and in the virtue that overcomes them. Nature gives man his objects, which are reflected in his mind, which governs his speech, in which each object will transform into a sound” What must we do to learn from nature and let our conscience educate us to be good imitators and not destroyers of those wonders and beauties around us and where the first place is occupied by the same life and especially the human species as synonymous with the greatness of creation and evolution?