Gunther Balarezo López*
Received:August 19, 2021 Published: August 30, 2021
Corresponding author:Gunther Balarezo López, Sociologist, Peruvian University of Applied Sciences, Peru
Alcoholism is a chronic, progressive, and often fatal disease characterized by emotional and sometimes organic dependence on alcohol; Such dependence can be produced by excessive intake of ethyl or methyl alcohol, either in the form of alcoholic beverages or as a constituent of other substances. Alcoholism can progress in a camouflaged way for 10 or 15 years, so it is easy to recognize in advanced stages, but it is quite difficult to be detected in intermediate stages.
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines alcoholism as “a chronic behavioral disorder, manifested by repeated alcohol intake, excessive with respect to social and dietary norms of the community and that end up interfering in the health or the economic and social functions of the person, drinker”. As causes of alcoholism, it is mentioned that just drinking regularly and consistently over a period of time can cause a feeling of dependency and symptoms during periods of abstinence; This physical dependence, however, is not the only cause. For a person to become an alcoholic, biological, genetic, cultural and psychological factors must generally be taken into account. There are also family problems that can influence a person to become an alcoholic such as guilt, shame, resentment, insecurity, delinquency, financial problems and physical abuse. Likewise, the risk in a person increases when the following difficulties exist in the family: an alcoholic father who suffers from depression or some other psychological problem; both parents abuse alcohol and other drugs; alcohol abuse by parents is severe and conflicts that lead to aggression and family violence. On the other hand, one of the greatest consequences of alcoholism occurs in the workplace. Many individuals arrive at work in the morning after staying up all night.
All day they are suffering with withdrawal symptoms and they just do routine work and camouflage themselves as much as they can. Among the main labor consequences we can mention: drop in productivity, decrease in the rate of production; large number of absences or lateness; frequent delay in arrival at work; frequent absence the days after party; clumsiness and irregularity at work; frequent disappearances from the post without prior justification; absenteeism due to minor illnesses such as colds, flu or minor accidents that occur regularly at work or outside of it; progressive change of attitude of the subject until then considered a good worker; arguments, criticisms, small faults for which he seeks to justify himself, small accidents in which he blames others and marked variations in humor, anger or loss of interest in work. It should be mentioned that it is totally false that drinking water or coffee reduces the effects of alcohol, a shower improves reflexes, emitting a large amount of urine eliminates alcohol, vomiting removes alcohol from the blood and you can drink more alcohol if you eat a lot. All of these actions give a feeling of momentary improvement, but they do not remove alcohol from the blood.
Regarding treatment, it begins with the recognition of alcoholism as a problem that needs specific attention. Alcoholism is associated with denial, allowing the patient to believe that she does not need it. Most people with an alcohol dependence enter treatment under pressure from others; voluntary acceptance is very rare. It is difficult to know the defense mechanisms that have allowed the person with alcohol dependence to continue drinking and a confrontation with the family and close associates is required. To do this, you should talk to the person when she is sober, and not when she is drunk or hungover. Once you have recognized the problem, abstinence from alcohol is the only treatment. In addition, they can be supported with rehabilitation programs, follow-up, etc. Family support is also often necessary, because alcoholism creates victims among those close people. Finally, alcohol can be good in small amounts. A small drink each day can lower your chances of heart problems, stroke, and other illnesses. The key is to drink moderately. According to a study published by the American Journal of Gastroenterology, moderate and regular consumption of wine reduces the risk of peptic ulcers and can help the body rid itself of the bacteria that are suspected of causing them.
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