Weihong Cui*, Leilei Shi and Liping Li
Received: November 25, 2020 Published: January 05, 2021
Corresponding author:Weihong Cui, Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
The contents, methods and theories of traditional anthropology will be enriched and improved with the social development. Scientific and technological innovation has become an important driving force to promote the development of society and productivity. With the development of information technology, network technology, artificial intelligence, biotechnology and aerospace technology, human society is rapidly transiting from the era of industrial economy to the era of knowledge economy, which is an important new opportunity, new challenge and new development for anthropology. In terms of economic globalization, artificial intelligence, urbanization and “one belt and one road”, we discussedthe big demands and challenges of anthropology.
Keywords:Anthropology; Economic Globalization; Artificial Intelligenceurbanization; One Belt and One Road
In the 1920s, professor Wu Wenzao, founder of anthropological
research of China, developed and organized the study of cultural
change, and applied the study of anthropology and sociology.
Professor FeiXiaotong put forward the concept of pluralism
to guide the integration of cultures. After China’s reform and
opening-up, research of anthropology in China has strengthened
exchanges with world anthropology, and Chinese anthropologists
have summarized the characteristics of anthropology as four
aspects: application, history, minority studies and ethnic traditions.
Chinese has witnessed dynamic changes around the world, paid
attention to the process of globalization, combined tradition and
modernity in an original way, and studied inter-cultural interaction,
communication and merges .
Anthropology, as a discipline, originated in Europe in the 19th century when it was the colonial period. European scientists focused on the study of classical ethology according to the needs of the development of Western colonial history, which formed a system for academic theories and research methods of regional anthropology. Ethnosphere research is related to Africa, the Middle East and South-East Asia and Latin America, and these studies provide the basis for social sciences, humanities, natural sciences, and geosciences, as well as for cross-disciplinary boundaries and multidisciplinary research. Scientific and technological innovation has become an important driving force to promote society and productivity. After World War II, with the rapid development of information technology, network technology, biotechnology, artificial intelligence and aerospace technology, the era of industrial economy was rapidly changed to the era of knowledge economy. The research contents, methods and theories of traditional anthropology will be enriched and improved, and the research of modern anthropology will face new opportunities, challenges and new developments. Here we discuss the new opportunities and challenges from four aspects .
Economic globalization is the need and inevitable result of the
development of the world economy. The development of capitalism
is constantly seeking to maximize profits, under the premise of the
sustainable development of the market economy, to expand to the
world, and gradually form the trend of economic globalization.
Economic globalization is driven by two major factors, one is the discovery of America by Columbus and Asia by Portuguese, space conditions for globalization by Magellan’s round-the-world navigation; the other is the steam engine industrial revolution, which has created material conditions for industrial development and commodity exports, which have created conditions for the development of economic globalization, and then from the steam age to the electrical age. The unprecedented increase in productivity provided a major impetus for economic globalization. The revolution in new technologies such as aerospace technology, microelectronics, new energy, biomedical and new materials has promoted the further development of economic globalization. The operation of the world economy is becoming more and more standardized and regularized, and economic globalization has really arrived .
a) In order to meet the economy globalization, the global
economy is facing the necessary transformation, organizations,
such as the European Union, the African Union, the Shanghai
Organization, the Southeast Asian Group, etc. are moving
from bilateral contacts to multilateral cooperation. Global
organizations play an important and active role, e.g., the World
Trade Organization, the World Health Organization and the
Global Climate Organization. The Paris conference proposed
the global warming of no more than 2 degrees Celsius by the
end of this century, the European Union and China proposed to
achieve global climate neutrality by 2050 and 2060. The world
is united to combat the climate change.
b) The global resources are unfairly distributed and the stage of economic development is different. Under this circumstances of economic globalization, the gap between rich and poor is fast growing.
c) The wave of immigration has become a major problem in many regions. On the one hand, immigration has become an important way for some people to get rich; on the other hand, rich countries need to solve the problem of labor shortage. But a large number of immigrants, with different ethnic cultures, different religions, might form new contradictions and challenges.
Artificial intelligence is developing towards the information industry and marketization, It could rapidly increase productivity, promote economic automation and social intelligence, and has a significant impact on human culture, social structure, thinking and behavior, as well as material civilization and spiritual civilization .
With the artificial intelligence taking the place of human’s work, including mental and physical ones, some people has to change their jobs. This even could cause unemployment.
B. Changes in human thinking and ideas
Artificial intelligence will influence the traditional ideas and modes of thinking. Traditional knowledge is printed on books, while artificial intelligence knowledge is constantly updated and modified. The human mind has to change with the modern knowledge.
C. Changes in the structure of human society
The current structure of human society is man-machine, while the structure of artificial intelligence is man - intelligent machine - machine. Human beings have to learn to adapt to get along with intelligent machine.
D. Changes in human culture
Artificial intelligence will improve human knowledge and human language. Human beings will use artificial intelligence or concepts for cultural exchange.
The proportion of urban population of the whole population is
an important index of contemporary social development. In China,
for example, the urban population accounted for only 10.64% of
the total population in 1949, 42.9% in 2005, 60.6% in 2019. It is
with an annual increase of 15 million which could lead to the urban
population 80%. Urban clusters have also developed rapidly. With
large cities as the center, a number of small and medium-sized cities
around, such as London, New York, Moscow, or a number of large
and medium-sized cities form a multi-core urban group, such as
Germany’s Rhine-Ruhr, China’s Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao
Bay Area (CourBation). The development of cities has brought
great changes in regional and environmental physical structures.
New challenges emerged on how human culture adapts, human
behavior changes and ways of thinking and sense of worth .
Urban clusters have developed into one-hour traffic circles, cultural transmission in the 5G era has developed to timely multipoint transmission, video conference, online and offline, shopping online even cross-border. Human culture will be integrated and developed in the new physical conditions, and will also be a major challenge to traditional anthropology.
In 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping proposed the idea of
“Building a New Silk Road Economic Belt” and a “Maritime Silk
Road”, which deepens the integration of ancient Silk Road spiritual
civilization with the characteristics of a new era. More than 100
countries and international organizations have been involved.
However, differences between languages, cultures, histories and religions in different countries have a great impact on cross-border
economic and cultural exchanges .
The Belt and Road initiative involves four major civilizations, including the pharaoh culture of ancient Egypt, the culture of the two river basins of Babylon, the culture of ancient India and Chinese culture. Ancient Egyptian culture has broken down, the ancient Athens civilization is the origin of western civilization. The Babylon culture has long disappeared into the desert. Cuneiform text has no way to spread. Ancient Indian culture has passed through many civilizations, especially from the Aryan invasion establishing a caste system, the Muslim invasion establishing the Moon Empire, and the British colonial India. Ancient Indian culture has become a history. Only the Chinese civilization, after 5000 years of heritage and preserved to date. But for the belt and road construction, it is urgent to understand the elements of the major civilizations, regional changes, cultural differences, behavior principles and social systems, otherwise it is difficult to achieve common development. This is also a new opportunity and challenge for modern anthropology, so it is necessary to:
The development of the Belt and Road, facing the problem of employee stability under the integration of multi-cultural, in the cooperation project, many employees are from foreign countries, employees are annoyed by cultural differences, resulting in instability, which leads to a higher turnover rate. With the lack of integration of language, habits and values, the phenomenon of frequent replacement after short-term tenure affects internal efficiency and cross-regional anthropological and cultural research, which helps to integrate differences in language, habits, customs and ideas, and helps to strengthen innovation and improve efficiency and reduce mistakes.
The different cultural backgrounds and unique cultures and
ways of thinking of the countries along the Belt and Road should
pay attention to the differences and integration of cultures, help to
get rid of the bad side of culture, make the decision-making more
innovative and improve international competitiveness.
Traditional anthropology was developed on the basis of tribal and slave societies. It is currently a post-industrial society with the economic globalization and urbanization and with the support of networking, informatization and intelligence. It is a great opportunity and a new challenge for the development of modern anthropology. Researchers carry out innovative research on anthropological development and multi-angle and multi-model research to create conditions for global economic development and win-win cooperation among countries. We recommend to have an international anthropology academic conference to stimulate the communication, exchange research results and discuss the development of anthropology in the new era.
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Gastroenterology and HepatologyUniversity of Alabama, UK
Department of MedicineUniversities of Bradford, UK
OncologyCirculogene Theranostics, England
Radiation ChemistryNational University of Mexico, USA
Analytical ChemistryWentworth Institute of Technology, USA
Minimally Invasive SurgeryMercer University school of Medicine, USA
Pediatric DentistryUniversity of Athens , Greece
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