Sanya Kenaphoom1* and Busara Niyomves2
Received:July 06, 2021 Published: July 16, 2021
Corresponding author:Sanya Kenaphoom, Rajabhat Mahasakham University, Thailand
Democracy is desirable political behavior, which is considered behavior that promotes and supports the development of democracy. Especially in developing countries that focus on improving civic behavior in line with democratic directions. However, economic philosophy is one concept that, when considered, has the following essential elements consistent with the principles of democracy: Reasonableness, Sufficiency, Immunity, Knowledge, and Moral Ethics. This research was conducted in the North-Central region, Thailand. The results of the study revealed that the factors affecting the integration of the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy into the democratic way of the people are Political democratic way of life, perception of sufficiency economy philosophy, life with immunity, job security, frequency of merit-making, living with knowledge and virtue, number of roles in the community, gender, age, Attitude towards Sufficiency Economy Philosophy, Family Size .
Keywords:Way of Sufficiency Economy; Way of Democracies
Human nature cannot be alone, Humans have to depend on each other, having connections with others to sustain their own species. Human society differs from animals over other living beings in that it has rules, rules, as well as systems of perception, ideas, or beliefs until it is accepted as a method or pattern, has changed characteristics. Improved or built for the prosperity of the common people’s way of life. Politics and sovereignty, too, were created and molded into the law of peaceful and peaceful coexistence of humanity. Because politics and governance are related to human life , the morality and ethics of people in society play an important role in the political system that society uses in a democratic society. The political and ruling nature emphasizes a way that reflects the hopes and desires of humanity. The government has limited power, emphasizes equality, is the government of the people, by the people, and for the people (Kanittha Kanchanarangsinont. 2011). Democracy is one of the forms of government that many countries consider the best among the many forms of government in the world. Democracy has the core principles of equality, equality, rationality, and freedom. The democratic principle emphasizes that people own supreme power in governing the country, participate, have rights in matters, and have equal freedom of expression under the rule of law . However, the development of democracy must be done in parallel in many respects, ranging from education, ideological cultivation, and the practice of democratic lifestyle behavior, which is called the “democratic way”. The way of perfect democracy must be a way of life that consists of consciousness and intellect, not in the manner of a tyrant. Having democratic beliefs, values and ideology must have the wisdom to direct. That ideology will have value for the benefit of oneself and society. The Sufficiency Economy Philosophy points to the way of living and conducting people at all levels, from the family level, the community level, to the state level both in the development and administration of the country in a middle way with sufficiency, moderation, rationality. This includes the need for an innate immune system that is sufficiently strong against any impact, resulting from change through knowledge, prudence, and caution, to keep pace with the globalized world (Sumet Tantivejkul. 2001: 25; Nisara Janjaroensuk et al. 2013: 90; Office of the Special Commission to coordinate projects arising from the Royal Initiative. 2004) .
This research aimed to analyze the factors affecting the way of sufficiency economy combined with the democratic way.
This study examined voters in the central northeastern region, Thailand. The research instrument was a questionnaire on democratic and self-sufficient ways. linear regression analysis, and systematic analysis.
The results of the study revealed that the factors affecting the integration of the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy into the democratic way of the people are Political democratic way of life, perception of sufficiency economy philosophy, life with immunity, job security, frequency of merit-making, living with knowledge and virtue, number of roles in the community, gender, age, Attitude towards Sufficiency Economy Philosophy, Family Size . Influencing factors can be grouped as follows:
a) Personal characteristics factors include several roles in the community, age, occupational security, family size, and gender.
b) The perceived factor is the perception of the sufficiency economy philosophy.
c) Attitude factor is the attitude towards the philosophy of sufficiency economy.
d) Behavioral factors include living with knowledge and morality, living with immunity, and political democratic ways.
It can be seen that these factors when considering the raw score (b) and standard score (beta) are positive. That is, when these factors are higher, the integration of the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy with the democratic way will increase accordingly as follows:
a) The increased role of the individual in the community influenced the integration of sufficiency economy philosophy with a more democratic approach. That is, a person has the opportunity to meet people and act as a role model for greater social acceptance. This is because the social role in a community is something that people in the community appreciate, which can be formal or informal. A person with multiple social roles becomes a public figure. Of course, they will maintain their image in the popular trend, belief, or community culture, where the current trend is the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy and Democracy.
b) The increasing influence of the aging people in the integration of the philosophy of sufficiency economy with the democratic way is more. The older you get, the more experience and learning you have, which makes you more rational , judgmental in choosing to believe or accept what is most valuable. The results of this research are consistent with the research results of Areeya Lapjirojsakul (1998) A study of the democratic political culture of local politicians found that age was related and consistent with the level of democratic political culture in terms of optimism and trust in others.
c) Having a more stable career influenced the integration of the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy with a more democratic approach. That is to say, a person who has a stable occupation means a stable household economy, that is, is often a well-behaved person, good economy results in a good democracy. Consistent with the study of Seymour Lipset (1963; Laddawan Sukyai. 2008) It has studied the relationship between economic development and democracy to show that countries with economic prosperity and wealth tend to have more opportunities to become democratic than poor countries. The results of the study concluded that any area with more urban development in that area would also have a high democracy. In a highly democratic society, the level of citizenship of the people will be high as well.
d) The greater the number of family members, the greater the influence of the sufficiency economy philosophy and the democratic way. That is to say, when the number of family members is many, there will be an exchange of knowledge, the process of fostering democracy and sufficiency arises from the family institution, which is a good thing. Consistent with the results of the study Warangkanang Chookaew (2008) The development of a causal model of values and behavior according to the philosophy of sufficiency economy of secondary school students . It can be concluded that the overall behavior of the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy of the Secondary School students as a result of the good upbringing from the family will lead to the students having good values and appropriate behavior according to the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy.
e) The greater awareness of the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy has influenced the integration of the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy with a more democratic way. That is to say, if people gain a better understanding of the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy, it will result in rationality, which comes from learning. Following Wiwat Iampriwan (2003: 153) That said, Perception refers to a person’s/group’s attitude towards certain things in politics, such as the likes-dislikes of politicians-political parties, etc. This perception can be attributed to individual-group experiences or may be derived from other people or social institutions, which are psychological factors that determine a person’s political culture. As well as Warangkanang Chookaew (2008) . The development of a causal model of values and behavior following the sufficiency economy philosophy of secondary school students. The results showed that the behaviors according to the sufficiency economy philosophy of secondary school students resulted from the teacher’s teaching activities and the appropriate school atmosphere.
f) A positive attitude towards sufficiency economy philosophy has influenced the integration of sufficiency economy philosophy with a more democratic approach. That is to say, having a good attitude is an open mind to things that will affect good behavior or combining Sufficiency Economy Philosophy with a democratic way. Following Wiwat Iampriwan (2003: 153) Says Attitude, which is the attitude or tendency of individualgroup feelings towards things in politics. Attitudes or tendencies in individual-group responses stem from feelings, emotions, and knowledge, which are the psychological factors that determine political culture.
g) People who live according to the principles of knowledge and morality and building principles will have more immunity, it will result in people combining the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy with the democratic path. In this regard, the adoption of the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy in our daily life is a good way to enhance the sufficiency way of politics. In accordance with Jirachoke Virasaya (2000: 147 – 172) Political socialization will enable people to learn and convey their way of life and know their virtues and values. The idea that society adheres to the norms and traditions used in society, as well as adheres to the moral principles of society and is ready to live in the way that society wants. As well as Wiwat Iampriwan (2003: 153) . It is said that learning is the process of obtaining political experience that results in a change in the expression of a person/group’s political behavior.
The overall research findings are in the direction of the Office of the Secretariat of the House of Representatives (2011: 40-44) It was found that other factors that would support or help this democracy to remain stable include:
a) The level of people’s education, which means that people are already aware of the things they have learned for the benefit of their lives, is one of the factors contributing to democracy. That is, since people in society are well educated and rational, tend to follow the political news, have political interests, and have the understanding that they are members of society. Any policy that society puts out will have a direct impact on them, which is why well-educated people tend to get involved in politics in one way or another.
b) Economic development will find that developed countries have a higher level of economic equality than developed countries in general. In addition, as a result, the society has good welfare such as education, medical treatment, etc. In addition to a good and stable economy, it allows people to have the opportunity to participate in politics voluntarily, not be under influence or be influenced by any coercion, and also result in a good democratic system and stable too.
c) A democratic personality is one of the factors that contribute to a sustainable democracy. The trait of these personalities is their interest in public affairs. Once interested, they are eager to follow up. Some arguments and criticisms are rational without prejudice and, most importantly, involvement in politics as a duty to act or to be held as a member of society .
d) The stability of political institutions also contributes to the steady progress of democracy. That is, when a political institution or organization is accepted by the people, the people will have more faith and will join or participate more. For example, when a stable political party can clearly express the intentions of its members, the policies issued are trusted and implemented, the people will have faith in that political party, and become more members, which is equal to supporting a more stable democracy and
e) Administrative and administrative development. One of the factors contributing to democracy is that governance and administration must be effective and responsive to the needs of the people. The government’s policy meets the intent and has a positive effect on the people, that is, the people have the opportunity to participate and benefit from the operation thoroughly, which will result in the people’s understanding of the faith and adherence to democratic politics. People will also own and participate in supporting political stability more as well.
The study of the relationship between the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy and the Democracy Path revealed that the approach of integrating the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy into the Democracy Path can only be complete when it is implemented in both political and administrative sectors. The researcher believes that the policy approach to develop a democracy that is rich in wisdom according to the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy, should proceed as follows: Social rules sector States must be defined in the constitution which the supreme law governing the country. The most important principle of issuing a constitution that must be taken into account is Wisdom-rich democracy, which is not a mad democracy with a majority but is in line with the philosophy of a sufficiency economy that relies on knowledge and virtue. In addition, the constitution must ensure equal rights and freedoms of the people, especially the sufficiency economy philosophy integrated into the law. Rules on the exercise of legislative, executive, and judicial powers by taking into account the differences of all sectors of society, emphasizing the decentralization of power to local government organizations. The design of the structure of political institutions, the organization to check the exercise of power, the assurance of people’s rights and freedoms in the written law (constitution). These must be designed in a self-sufficient democratic approach with considerable consideration to the lower structures or infrastructure of Thai society. Because the Thai constitution has a different “context” from the Western constitution, namely; Thailand’s written constitution is an unwritten constitution, that is, groups in society that drive the political system ruled over Thailand .
The process of social reconciliation must focus on the development of a democratic political culture. For example, the selection of people to exercise power on behalf of the state exercises power for the benefit of the common people who truly and honestly own the power. All parties have adopted the sufficiency economy approach according to His Majesty’s words as the banner of life, along with the creation of a democratic political culture, a perfect democratic society will be established and sustained.
Encourage people to understand sufficiency economy and learn democracy from practice. The citizens, as citizens, have the right to own sovereignty, and therefore deserve to receive comprehensive and fair education, public health services, public services, and development projects from the State that are not mandated or indebted to a person any. The people should therefore examine the performance of government officials who are responsible for providing honest services and for the benefit of the people and the nation. Encourage all Thai people to learn about their rights in real life, for example, the family should democratically raise children with reason. Encouraging children to have self-esteem and consciousness as patriotic and altruistic citizens, especially emphasizing discretion with reason without mad ideology with hatred for other people with differences. This is considered very dangerous for the development of democracy and the adoption of the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy in their lives.
Mass communication sector
Reforming the mass media to create quality citizens requires reforming the quality of workers and management of mass communication Campaign to encourage children, youth, people to love reading, learning, and self-development. Developing scientific rational analytical thinking which is education. Therefore, the media should focus on the development of intellectual, emotional, and collective ethical intelligence. Morality goes hand in hand. Focus on making people proud, self-confident, proud of the history and culture of the community and country and mature to understand problems and come up with creative and profound solutions. Therefore, to create a way of life of democracy that is good, sustainable, with moderation, moderation, and immunity must be a wise way, it is necessary to adopt the mainstream philosophy of Thai society. That is to say, using the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy to direct the movement of civil society democracy to become a “Political culture” that is suitable for Thai society. Which is a pattern of beliefs or political behavior of people in society is the cornerstone of the political regime, which may be caused by Political Socialization that must be done organically at the same time, both the rules sector, the social process sector, the sector the public, and the mass communication sector. It can be summarized as a concept map in the Figure 1 below.
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