Nothing in the universe is static; it usually changes and has its mechanical system. It doesn’t happen without reasonable cause.
Theories that support the concept are system theory, the Paticcasamuppāda (The Law of Dependent Origination), and the four
noble truths, etc. When man discovered the mechanisms of anything perfectly, then he established the discovery as a science, which
is divided into pure science and applied science. Therefore, man had his strategies for discovering knowledge, and the study of
knowledge is called Epistemology. Epistemology deals with types, sources, nature, and the reality of knowledge. Knowledge is
gained from the answer of research philosophy, in which research findings or knowledge are supported by research and theories.
The two sub-areas of philosophical questions include Rationalism and Empiricism. Rationalism is the emphasis on reasoning as a
source of knowledge. It is believed that man was born with knowledge, and he learns new experiences based on his past experiences
or background. Empiricism or empiricism doctrine is the emphasis on observational evidence via sensory experience. It is believed
that man learns reality and knowledge through his five senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. Knowledge gained from
research methodology can explain the truth in the universe. Subjectivism is the view that reality (the “object”) is dependent on
human consciousness (the “subject”), and Subjectivism is one view of Epistemology which deals with seeking and creating new
knowledge. Empiricism is divided into two subfields:
a) Positivism and Phenomenologist. Positivism believes and focuses on studying sensitive and touchable phenomena. In other
words, the subject is touchable, tangible, countable, and measurable. Quantitative research methodology is based on Positivism.
b) Phenomenologism believes that there is a social movement or dynamic in the universe. Therefore, measurement and count
do not help to precisely understand phenomenons. On other hand, understanding the meaning, values, and culture of people helps
precisely understand phenomenons. Qualitative research methodology is based on these principles.
Keywords: Research Philosophy; Quantitative; Qualitative